2Ultimately, the outcome of reflection is learning (Meziros, 1981). It widens our perspective on a problem (broadens knowledge)It helps us develop strategies for dealing with it (develop skills)It helps us acquire new insights into our behaviour (changes attitudes)K.S.A.
5Attributes for reflection The key qualities (attitudes) individuals need to do proper reflection are:Open-minded’nessCommitment to self-enquiryMotivation andReadiness to change practiceRichardson & Maltby (1995), Gillings (2000)Attributes for reflection
9ISCE criteria Information Provided Self-Awareness Critical Thinking Describing what happened or what was observed in enough detail. Should be honest and unbiased. This should be sufficient to give the feeling that to an independent person that they were actually there. Care is needed to include information that is assumed to be known or self-evident.Self-AwarenessBeing open and honest about performance but also writing about own feelings and/or that of othersCritical ThinkingBreaking the bigger picture into smaller parts, analysing the bigger and smaller pictures, identifying and challenging assumptions, problem solving, describing own thought processes, developing alternativesEvidence of learning = [SYNTHESIS + JUDGEMENT + EVALUATION]Synthesis – integrating new with old information and taking into account feelings. Bringing up elements into a whole.Judgement – considering the possibilities and weighing them up. Describing what needs to be learned, why and how.Evaluation – looking back to see what difference it made.ISCE criteria
10Reflective Writing Template by Shiela Bonas (2004) What happened?What did I need to do?How did I perform?Well?Areas of improvement?What did I think/feel?I think that…I feel sad/happy..Why did I think or feel this way?New insights?Related to past experience?How did my thoughts/ feelings affect others?Behaviours; beliefs; feelings.What are consequences?short term, long term, for me, for othersHow can this help me in the future?goals, improve skills, learn, stress levels etcReflective Writing Template by Shiela Bonas (2004)
13Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation Outcome measured by+ve = acheived-ve = failed to achieve1 REACTIONHow you felt after the activity?Satisfaction with having undertaken the activity - are you happy you decided to do this?No satisfaction with undertaking the activity.2 LEARNINGTesting knowledge.Different attitudes.New skill found.Did you learn something from this?No new knowledge, skills or change in attitude.3 BEHAVIOURProtocol development.Practice specific guidelines..Review of individual patient records.Videos.Are you using the skills or knowledge in your work? Has your attitude to a problem changed, do you look at it differently?No new knowledge, skills or changes in attitude used to improve patient care.4 RESULTSAudit.Significant events.Changes in patient care.Have patients benefited by your learning, has patient management improved?No benefits seen for patients.No change in patient management.Impact and effectKirkpatrick