Presentation on theme: "Argumentation Structure and Development. On Argumentation: “The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” - Joseph Joubert,"— Presentation transcript:
On Argumentation: “The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” - Joseph Joubert, Pensees, 1842
Argument vs Persuasion Persuasion: method writer uses to move audience (belief or action) –Relies on appeals Argumentation: the appeal to reason –Does not try to move an audience –Primary purpose: demonstrate certain ideas are valid and others are not –Most effective arguments combine appeals
Basic Structure of an Argument Makes Points Supplies Evidence Establishes logical chain or reasoning Refutes Opposing Arguments Accommodates the views of the Audience
An Argument: In an argument a writer or speaker has a specific purpose for addressing a targeted audience. He/she uses reasoning to accept or reject an idea based on its validity and truth. An argument has a thesis statement or claim (a stand on the issue), which is supported with various premises (evidence).
When analyzing an argument: Determine the credibility of the writers and their purposes for writing. Be familiar with how writers appeal to targeted audiences by using three classical strategies:
Three different strategies are: Pathos Ethos Logos
Rhetorical Triangle APPEALS TO LOGIC AND REASONING [logos] APPEALS TO EMOTIONS [pathos] APPEALS TO CREDIBILITY AND CHARACTER [ethos] PURPOSE
Rhetorical Triangle PURPOSE At the core of the rhetorical triangle is purpose.
You must gain practice in identifying precisely writer’s apparent purposes.
Logical Appeal [Logos] Appeals to an audience’s reasoning or logic Language may be more dispassionate, appealing to the intellect rather than the emotions.
Be able to identify: INDUCTIVE REASONING DEDUCTIVE REASONING specific to general conclusion (ISG = inductive moves from specific to general) general to specific conclusion (DoGS = deductive moves from general to specific)
Also be able to Understand the flaws in logic (logical fallacies). Recognize concession and counterargument.
Concession An expression of concern for the feelings of those who may disagree with the writer’s position. Shows the writer to be a logical thinker and a concerned, fair- minded person who realizes that every argument has two sides.
Counterargument Three parts: - acknowledging (concession) - accommodating (“setting them up”) - refuting (“shooting them down”)
Logical reasoning will also rely on: Facts and evidence research tradition (precedent) authorities cause/effect analogies effective metaphors
Emotional Appeal [Pathos] Passion, not logic, stirs most people to take a stance. Writers will use a friendlier, more relaxed tone and appeal to the basic needs that all people have:
physical needs--life and health of the body psychological needs--a person’s inner life, the need for love and self-respect social needs--the need for freedom, for status and power, for acceptance by others
Three strategies to employ : connotative diction, imagery, metaphors appeals to pity, compassion-- the qualities that unite all humans carefully crafted syntax such as parallelism, anaphora, etc. to appeal to the reader’s sense of order and control
Pathos Question How has the writer appealed to audience’s emotions?
Ethical Appeals [Ethos] Ethos in Greek loosely translates to “character” possess good character and argue in ways that reveal that good character audience should see writers as people very much like themselves-- establish credibility
Ethos Questions How does the writer or speaker present himself as reliable, good? How does the writer or speaker aim to build bridges with the audience or opposition?
Ethos Strategies make qualified claims (exceptions to rules, “perhaps” “some” “many”) restate opposing view accurately and fairly associate self with relevant authorities; relevant allusions use first-person plural pronouns “we” “us” to establish a relationship
In Persuasive essay address issue in one of three ways: Defend, or agree with a position Challenge, or disagree with a position Qualify, or make the claim more flexible by adding certain terms: almost, may, probably, in most cases, hardly, sometimes, might, frequently, usually, often et. al.
Rhetorical Devices Repetition/Anaphora (deliberate use of any element of language more than once) Allusion (reference to a mythological, literary, or historical person place or thing) Parallelism/Antithesis