Presentation on theme: "English 1301 LR-472. The use of clear thinking and logic, the writer tries to convince readers of the soundness of a particular opinion on a controversial."— Presentation transcript:
According to ancient Greeks... There are three factors crucial to the effectiveness of argumentation-persuasion: Logos Pathos Ethos
Main concern in essay. The soundness of the argument: The facts Statistics Examples
Authoritative statements Unified Specific Adequate Accurate Representative
Appeals to readers’ Needs Values Attitudes Encouraging them to commit Advertising & Propaganda rely on pathos to the exclusion of logic.
Credibility and Integrity Share experiences Present a logical, reasoned argument that takes into account the opposing point of view. Make sure emotions and appeals are not excessive. Overwrought emotionalism undercuts credibility. Ethos IS NOT constant.
Involve an interplay of all three. Balance is determined by the audience. Audience will fall into three broad categories: Supportive Wavering Hostile
Supportive Don’t need highly reasoned argument Solidify support (logos). Can rely on pathos.
A Wavering Audience Open, but not committed. Concentrate on ethos and logos
A hostile Audience An apathetic, skeptical, or hostile audience is the most difficult to convince. Avoid emotional appeals Use logical reasoning and hard-to-dispute facts (logos).
Identify the controversy surrounding the issue and state your position in the thesis. Provide readers with strong support for the thesis. Seek to create good will. Organize the supporting evidence. Use Rogerian strategy to acknowledge differing viewpoints. (Seek out and acknowledge conflict viewpoints.)