Presentation on theme: "Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing Reading an ArgumentConsidering Rhetorical Context(Author,Audience,Date/Place of Publication)
2 Guidelines for Determining Rhetorical Context Who wrote this argument,and what are his/her training,personal background,and political learning?Who is the intended audience?Where did it appear originally?When was the argument written?Why was the article written?
3 A Step-By-Step analysis of Toulmin Method of evaluation A Step-By-Step analysis of Toulmin Method of evaluation of logical patternAnalyze the ClaimIdentify the ClaimLook for Qualifiers: Absolute,Relative,or Universal /”typically” /“usually” /“most of the time”Find the ExceptionsSummarize the ClaimAssess the arguer’s refutationsNote the Counter Arguments
4 Argumentation versus Persuasion These words are often used interchangeably.Argumentation: the process of forming reasons and of drawing conclusions and applying them to a case in discussion. An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.Persuasion: the tactical process of moving to a belief, position or a course of action.
5 ArgumentGood argumentative writing is more defined when utilized with other forms of writing such as description, a short narrative, classification, cause and effect, etc.
6 Styles of argumentative of writing Toulmin model: Follows the pattern of a claim (proposition/thesis), data (support) with qualifiers, warrant, and a concession.Rogers’ model: Use of Rogerian arguments to come to a conclusion that mixes both views of the issue to reach a common ground.
7 the uses…. Everyday life Workplace Academic environment Reading and Listening- (current events)
8 The basics of an argument Your position and know the purpose of your essayAnalyze your audienceReasonsEvidence: Research your topic
9 Audience Write with sincerity towards audience using an ethical appeal Don’t write with an arrogance or with disregard to opposing viewsTry starting in introduction, gaining confidence of audienceThis approach will show your concern and fair-minded purpose
10 Writing an argumentative Choose an interesting controversial issueFocus on a question related to your topicChoose a positionAcknowledge opposing positionsInvestigate topic and get informed
11 The Thesis… Outlines and gives a clear and concise main idea of essay Can’t be a declared fact (won’t be argumentable)Declares something is fact, by providing evidence throughout essaySupports a policyCalls for actionAsserts value
12 Obtaining information By readingConversation with othersUse your own observationsQuestionnairePeriodicalsAlways cite sources usedMake sure the information you receive is relevant and credible and valid
13 Evidence Includes: Established Truths Historical, scientific, and geographical factsAuthoritative point of viewPrimary sourcesStatisticsPersonal experience/Examples
14 Managing evidence Reliability How much endorsing evidence? ContradictoryHow well established is evidence?Does it support/fit your claim?Allow it to be conclusive
15 The Three Persuasive Appeals Logos:Logic- the appeal to reasonPathos:Emotion- the appeal to emotionEthos:Credibility- the appeal of one’s character
16 Logos: reasoning strategies Induction: A process through which the premises provide some basis for the conclusion.Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion. Reductio ad Absurdum: (to reduce to absurdity) To question a position by showing that its consequence are problematic if carried to their logical end.
17 Questions of Credibility Has the reader been able to rely on what you have said in the past? If they are unfamiliar with you…Do you know what you’re talking about? Are you familiar with all sides of the issue?Have you done your research on the issue?Have you documented your research thoroughly and accurately?Have your thoughtfully addressed the opposition?
18 Some Ways to Use the Three Appeals CredibilityLogicEmotionShow that you are fair- and open-mindedPoint to other “experts” or an authority other than yourselfCite researchShow why people should listen to you and you believeRely primarily on factsUse deductive or inductive reasoning to reach your conclusionUse classical argument, including reason and evidence to support your claimUse emotionally charged or highly connotative wordsAppeal to peoples fears, concerns, passions, vanity, sense of justice, and so forthTake advantage of rhythm and refrain in language
19 Syllogism IF A=B and B=C, then A=C The simplest sequence of logical premises and conclusionsevery syllogism contains at least three parts:a major premise (global assumption)a minor premise (specific claim)a conclusionIF A=B and B=C, then A=C
20 Enthymeme shorten version of syllogism a syllogism without stating either the major or minor premise (it is implied)less formal than the syllogismsometimes more persuasiveare often “because” statements
21 Fallacies= mistakes made in the logic of arguments Common fallacies found in arguments include:Hasty Generalizations- a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidenceNon Sequitur- “It does not follow”Slippery slope- the snow ball effectCard Stacking-presenting part of the claimStereotypingAd populum- an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand
22 Fallacies (cont.) Either/Or Begging the claim- conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim( Circular argument)Arguing Off the pointThe argument ad Hominem- “attack the person’s character than their opinion”Appeal to crowdGuilt by associationPost Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc-”after this, therefore because of this”Faulty analogy: assuming two unlike things are similar when in fact they are notRed Herring
23 Avoid also…Strawman tactics- pointing out and focusing on flimsy weaknesses of opposing side.Anonymous authority- refers to a source of authority but does not name the source nor explain its legitimacy.This will show that you are trying to prove your position by disregarding other facts.
24 True argument vs. valid argument true argument- argument that has conclusion that people commonly consider to be fact based on their worldly experience or wide-spread beliefvalid argument- argument that has a conclusion that logically follows its underlying assumption regardless of whether the assumption is true or not
25 Revising Consider the objections of the opposing appeal Do you capture the audience?Is evidence appropriate to the argument?Are the authorities qualified to be used as a source?Is the proposition clearly stated?Is it free of fallacies?
26 Tips of writing an essay Avoid emotional languageBe able to determine difference between a logical conclusion and an emotional point of viewDon’t make up evidenceCite your sourcesMake an outline- DO THE WRITING PROCESSBe prepared to defend your side by knowing the strongest arguments for the other side.
27 Concluding Restate your position. Summarize your main points. Predict the consequences if it does or does not prevail.Prepare to end your essay possibly with an emotional appeal.