Presentation on theme: "Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing Reading an Argument Considering Rhetorical Context (Author,Audience,Date/Place of Publication)"— Presentation transcript:
Argumentative /Persuasive Reading & writing Reading an Argument Considering Rhetorical Context (Author,Audience,Date/Place of Publication)
Guidelines for Determining Rhetorical Context Who wrote this argument,and what are his/her training,personal background,and political learning? Who is the intended audience? Where did it appear originally? When was the argument written? Why was the article written?
A Step-By-Step analysis of Toulmin Method of evaluation of logical pattern Analyze the Claim Identify the Claim Look for Qualifiers: Absolute,Relative,or Universal /typically /usually /most of the time Find the Exceptions Summarize the Claim Assess the arguers refutations Note the Counter Arguments
Argumentation versus Persuasion These words are often used interchangeably. Argumentation: the process of forming reasons and of drawing conclusions and applying them to a case in discussion. An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research. Persuasion: the tactical process of moving to a belief, position or a course of action.
Argument Good argumentative writing is more defined when utilized with other forms of writing such as description, a short narrative, classification, cause and effect, etc.
Styles of argumentative of writing Toulmin model: Follows the pattern of a claim (proposition/thesis), data (support) with qualifiers, warrant, and a concession. Rogers model: Use of Rogerian arguments to come to a conclusion that mixes both views of the issue to reach a common ground.
the uses…. Everyday life Workplace Academic environment Reading and Listening- (current events)
The basics of an argument Your position and know the purpose of your essay Analyze your audience Reasons Evidence: Research your topic
Audience Write with sincerity towards audience using an ethical appeal Dont write with an arrogance or with disregard to opposing views Try starting in introduction, gaining confidence of audience This approach will show your concern and fair-minded purpose
Writing an argumentative Choose an interesting controversial issue Focus on a question related to your topic Choose a position Acknowledge opposing positions Investigate topic and get informed
The Thesis… Outlines and gives a clear and concise main idea of essay Cant be a declared fact (wont be argumentable) Declares something is fact, by providing evidence throughout essay Supports a policy Calls for action Asserts value
Obtaining information By reading Conversation with others Use your own observations Questionnaire Periodicals Always cite sources used Make sure the information you receive is relevant and credible and valid
Evidence Includes: Established Truths Historical, scientific, and geographical facts Authoritative point of view Primary sources Statistics Personal experience/Examples
Managing evidence Reliability How much endorsing evidence? Contradictory How well established is evidence? Does it support/fit your claim? Allow it to be conclusive
The Three Persuasive Appeals Logos: Logic- the appeal to reason Pathos: Emotion- the appeal to emotion Ethos: Credibility- the appeal of ones character
Logos: reasoning strategies Induction: A process through which the premises provide some basis for the conclusion. Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion. Reductio ad Absurdum: (to reduce to absurdity) To question a position by showing that its consequence are problematic if carried to their logical end.
Questions of Credibility Has the reader been able to rely on what you have said in the past? If they are unfamiliar with you… Do you know what youre talking about? Are you familiar with all sides of the issue? Have you done your research on the issue? Have you documented your research thoroughly and accurately? Have your thoughtfully addressed the opposition?
Some Ways to Use the Three Appeals CredibilityLogicEmotion Show that you are fair- and open- minded Point to other experts or an authority other than yourself Cite research Show why people should listen to you and you believe Rely primarily on facts Use deductive or inductive reasoning to reach your conclusion Use classical argument, including reason and evidence to support your claim Use emotionally charged or highly connotative words Appeal to peoples fears, concerns, passions, vanity, sense of justice, and so forth Take advantage of rhythm and refrain in language
Syllogism The simplest sequence of logical premises and conclusions every syllogism contains at least three parts: a major premise (global assumption) a minor premise (specific claim) a conclusion IF A=B and B=C, then A=C
Enthymeme shorten version of syllogism a syllogism without stating either the major or minor premise (it is implied) less formal than the syllogism sometimes more persuasive are often because statements
Fallacies= mistakes made in the logic of arguments Common fallacies found in arguments include: Hasty Generalizations- a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence Non Sequitur- It does not follow Slippery slope- the snow ball effect Card Stacking-presenting part of the claim Stereotyping Ad populum- an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) or negative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand
Fallacies (cont.) Either/Or Begging the claim- conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim( Circular argument) Arguing Off the point The argument ad Hominem- attack the persons character than their opinion Appeal to crowd Guilt by association Post Hoc, ergo Propter Hoc-after this, therefore because of this Faulty analogy: assuming two unlike things are similar when in fact they are not Red Herring
Avoid also… Strawman tactics- pointing out and focusing on flimsy weaknesses of opposing side. Anonymous authority- refers to a source of authority but does not name the source nor explain its legitimacy. This will show that you are trying to prove your position by disregarding other facts.
True argument vs. valid argument true argument- argument that has conclusion that people commonly consider to be fact based on their worldly experience or wide- spread belief valid argument- argument that has a conclusion that logically follows its underlying assumption regardless of whether the assumption is true or not
Revising Consider the objections of the opposing appeal Do you capture the audience? Is evidence appropriate to the argument? Are the authorities qualified to be used as a source? Is the proposition clearly stated? Is it free of fallacies?
Tips of writing an essay Avoid emotional language Be able to determine difference between a logical conclusion and an emotional point of view Dont make up evidence Cite your sources Make an outline- DO THE WRITING PROCESS Be prepared to defend your side by knowing the strongest arguments for the other side.
Concluding Restate your position. Summarize your main points. Predict the consequences if it does or does not prevail. Prepare to end your essay possibly with an emotional appeal.