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Unit 7: Ecology Left SidePg #Right SidePg # Unit Page34Table of Contents35 Levels of Organization36C.N. – Ecology Part 137 Sources of Energy Tree Map38C.N. – Energy Flow39 Food Chain Activity40Food Chain/Web Worksheet41 Community Interactions Tree Map 42C.N. – Community Interactions 43
Community Interactions & Succession Chapter 4-2
Community Interactions Community: all the LIVING organisms in an ecosystem that live and interact together 3 types of interactions: 1. Competition 2. Predation (predator/prey) 3. Symbiosis
Competition 1. Competition: Interactions where organisms compete for resources water, food, nutrients, light, space, mates
Direct competition results in a winner and a loser, with the loser failing to survive.
Predation 2. Predation: interactions when one organism captures and feeds on another. Predator (hunter) Prey (gets hunted)
Symbiosis 3. Symbiosis: A relationship where two species live closely together. 3 types of symbiosis: Mutualism Commensalism parasitism
Types of Symbiosis 1.Mutualism- both individuals benefit from the relationship (++) Ex. Bee & Flower
Example: Caterpillars make nectar which the ants drink from, and the acacia tolerates the feeding caterpillars. The ants appear to provide some protection for both plant and caterpillar.
Example: The senita cactus, whose flowers bloom only after dark and are pollinated almost exclusively by this senita moth. The moth lays its eggs (top right) in flowers. Larvae (moth caterpillars) which hatch from these eggs later consume some of the fruits.
Commensalism 2. Commensalism: one individual benefits while the other is unaffected (+ 0) Ex: Clown Fish & Sea Anenome
Parasitism 3. Parasitism: one organism benefits while the other is harmed (+ -) Ex: Flea & Dog
Apentales are getting their nutrient from the hornworm
Ecological Succession Succession: the predictable changes that occur in a community over time. 2 types of Succession: 1. Primary Succession 2. Secondary Succession
Primary Succession Occurs on surfaces where no soil exists. Ex: after a volcanic eruption spills lava over land The ecosystem starts from scratch Pioneer Species: 1 st species to populate the land
Secondary Succession Restoring an ecosystem after a natural disaster or disturbance. Ex: after a fire Climax Community: the stable ecosystem that existed before the disturbance