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What Shapes an Ecosystem 4-2. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors – the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Biotic Factors –

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Presentation on theme: "What Shapes an Ecosystem 4-2. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors – the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Biotic Factors –"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Shapes an Ecosystem 4-2

2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors – the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Biotic Factors – the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem Abiotic Factors – the physical or nonliving factors that shape an ecosytem Abiotic Factors – the physical or nonliving factors that shape an ecosytem Together biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives Together biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives

3 Habitat Habitat – is the area where an organism lives Habitat – is the area where an organism lives

4 Niche Niche – is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions Niche – is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions For example the niche of owl is all of the following biotic and abiotic factors: For example the niche of owl is all of the following biotic and abiotic factors: Lives in trees Lives in trees Feeds at night Feeds at night Feeds on mice Feeds on mice Lives in cool climate Lives in cool climate Which of the following above are biotic and abiotic? Which of the following above are biotic and abiotic?

5 Niche No two species can share the same niche in the same habitat No two species can share the same niche in the same habitat Different species can occupy niches that are very similar Different species can occupy niches that are very similar

6 Niche Example What is the Niche in Baseball? What is the Niche in Baseball? What is the Niche of different local businesses? What is the Niche of different local businesses?

7 Community Interactions Competition occurs when organisms compete for a resource Competition occurs when organisms compete for a resource Resource – is any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space Resource – is any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space Direct competition results in a winner and a loser (the loser doesnt survive) Direct competition results in a winner and a loser (the loser doesnt survive) Competitive Exclusion Principle – state that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time Competitive Exclusion Principle – state that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

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9 Community Interactions Predation – where one organism captures and feeds on another organism (lion and gazelle) Predation – where one organism captures and feeds on another organism (lion and gazelle) Symbiosis – any relationship in which two species live closely together (3 forms as follows) Symbiosis – any relationship in which two species live closely together (3 forms as follows) Mutualism – both species benefit from the relationship (ex. bee and flower) Mutualism – both species benefit from the relationship (ex. bee and flower) Commensalism – one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed (ex. barnacles attached to a whale) Commensalism – one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed (ex. barnacles attached to a whale) Parasitism – one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it (ex. tick and dog) Parasitism – one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it (ex. tick and dog) Can you think of any other example for all of these? Can you think of any other example for all of these?

10 Ecological Succession Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community This series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called Ecological Succession This series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time is called Ecological Succession

11 Primary Succession Primary succession is the first time life appears on a new surface of land Primary succession is the first time life appears on a new surface of land Occurs after volcanic activity or melting of glaciers Occurs after volcanic activity or melting of glaciers When primary succession begins there is no soil, just ash and rock When primary succession begins there is no soil, just ash and rock The first species to populate the areas are called Pioneer Species The first species to populate the areas are called Pioneer Species

12 Primary Succession The primary species on volcanic rock are lichen The primary species on volcanic rock are lichen Lichen is made up of a algae and fungus that can grow on rock Lichen is made up of a algae and fungus that can grow on rock The lichen grow on the rock and break it down The lichen grow on the rock and break it down When the lichen die they add organic material to help form soil for plants to grow on When the lichen die they add organic material to help form soil for plants to grow on

13 Secondary Succession Disturbances such as Fire or farming can alter an ecosystem Disturbances such as Fire or farming can alter an ecosystem When the disturbance is over, community interactions tend to restore the ecosystem to its original condition through Secondary Succession When the disturbance is over, community interactions tend to restore the ecosystem to its original condition through Secondary Succession For ex. Lightning in woodlands causes a fire burning the woodlands down, the fire also causes pine cones to explode and spread their seed to allow the forest to re-grow once the disaster is over For ex. Lightning in woodlands causes a fire burning the woodlands down, the fire also causes pine cones to explode and spread their seed to allow the forest to re-grow once the disaster is over

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15 Homework Read 4-2 Read 4-2 P. 97 Q 1-6 P. 97 Q 1-6


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