2Do NowWhat do you think happens to the losers of a war?
3So now that we know how the war started and what happened…. What happened AFTER the war?
4Questions to answer today 1. How did WWI change Europe?2. How might the nations of the world prevent another world war?
5Words to know:Fourteen Points: U.S. President Wilson’s 14 ideas about what countries should do to stay peaceful.Self-determination: the right countries in Europe have to be their own nation. Ex: U.S.A. became independentLeague of Nations: A group of countries that worked for peace after WWI.Buffer zone: Area of land that separates enemy nationsReparations: Payments the loser of a war has to make to help other countries recover.Mandates: land in one area that is under the control of another country. Ex: Iraq was a mandate of Great Britain after WWI.Woodrow Wilson: The president of the U.S. when World War I ended.Rhineland: buffer zone between France and Germany.Treaty of Versailles: Peace agreement made in France after WWI that punished Germany for the war.
6TreatyA treaty is a peace agreement. Have you ever gotten in a fight with someone? How did you make peace? How do you think countries make peace treaties after war? Do you think that after a peace agreement is made, both sides are completely happy?Take 3-5 minutes to answer in your journals
7Drawing up the treatyThe leaders of Italy, France, Great Britain and Woodrow Wilson from the U.S. led talks to answer 2 questions1. How can we prevent future wars?2. and who should take responsibility for the damage of World War I?
8Meeting in France: The Treaty of Versailles In 1919, the leaders of Italy, France, Great Britain and U.S.A. met in Versailles, France to talk about those 2 questions.The leaders together were known as: The Big Four
10I. The Big Four United States – Wilson 1.“Peace without victory”: no winner or loser – treat all countries fairly2. 14 PointsA. fourteen ideasB. plan to prevent future wars3. “Stubborn” and Idealistno bargaining or negotiations (compromise) perfect vision of the future.
11The 14 Points Here are just a few of Wilson’s points: End secret deals between nationsKeep neutral ships safe at sea during warEuropean nations should all be treated fairlyDifferent nations should have the right to form their own nations. Self Determination.Form the League of Nations: Organization of nations that worked for world peace and to stop wars before they started
12I. The Big Four B. France – Clemenceau 1. Alsace-Loraine: province that Germany took in France wanted it back!2. France wanted harsh treatment of Germany
13I. The Big Four C. Great Britain – Lloyd George 1. Moderate punishment of GermanySome punishment – Why?They didn’t have as many casualties (deaths or injuries and weren’t as hurt as France)
14BUT Great Britain still wanted to protect the Empire A. Larger empire on earthB. Great Britain DIDN’T agree with self determination: the right of countries to form their own nation states.WHY? Because then they would lose some land
15I. The Big Four D. Italy – Orlando 1. Lands from Austria-Hungary – land and islandsBefore WWI – Triple AllianceSwitch sides after WWI starts2. Left Conference in anger3. Get little at final treaty
16Point of Disagreement U.S.A: President Wilson just wanted peace. He didn’t think that the Central Powers should be punished too harshly because they may get angry and try to start another war.
17Point of Disagreement France: Disagreed with Wilson. They believed that Germany should be punished so it was as weak as possible.Then Germany wouldn’t be able to start another war.
18Answer in your journal: Why do you think France wanted such a harsh punishment for Germany after World War I?
19Motives for the treaty: The Trauma of WWI WWI caused a huge number of casualties: deaths or injuries
21% of Casualties by country Russia: sent 12,000,000 troops76.3% were killed or hurtFrance: sent 8.410,000 troops76.3% were killed or hurtBritain sent 8,904,467 troops35.8% were killed or hurtGermany sent 11,000,000 troops64.9% were killed or hurtThe U.S. sent 4,355,000 troops8.2 %were killed or hurt
22What do you notice about the % of Russian and German casualties? Russia: sent 12,000,000 troops76.3% were killed or hurt- Germany sent 11,000,000 troops64.9% were killed or hurt
29Answer the following questions in your journal: 1. How do you feel when you see these images?2. Why is it significant that major buildings like the courthouse, city hall, and hotels were destroyed3. How long do you think it would take to re-build these buildings and communities?4. How much do you think it would cost?5. Can a community EVER really recover from such destruction?
30Based on what you have learned today… How were France’s goals for the treaty (peace agreements) different from U.S. goals?What would France want from Germany, the country that destroyed so much of their land?Would those desires be reasonable or fair?
31U.S. perspective:Why do you think the U.S. may have a more idealistic perspective on how to resolve things between countries after the war?
32They didn’t lose as much! No battles fought on US landNot nearly as many casualties from the U.S.
33VENN DIAGRAM U.S.A. France Both -Many soldiers hurt or killed in WWI -A lot of land and cities were destroyed-Wanted a very harsh punishment for GermanyPart of the Allied PowersWent to peace talks at the Treaty of Versailles-Not very many soldiers hurt or killed in WWI-No battles fought on U.S. ground-Wanted “Peace without Victory”-Wanted to go “easy” on GermanyBoth
34Why harsh treatment of Germany? 1. France was hurt a lot by the war – Western Front2. Weak Germany won’t attack France in the future.==
36NOT all nations agreed with the 14 Points. The most important point for Wilson was setting up the League of Nations.SO he was willing to agree to harsher punishment for Germany than he would have liked.
37Results of The Treaty of Versailles The bad side of compromiseCompromise – decision after bargainingNo one is happy
38Self-DeterminationDefinition: right of different nationalities to form their own nation states instead of being easily taken over by other countriesIn Europe ONLY…British empire is safe.New countries in Eastern Europe
39What happened to Germany? 1. Lost all African and Asian Colonies
47Main Ideas Fill in a “Main Idea” worksheet. Write in the main idea: “The Treaty of Versailles punished Germany Harshly.Fill in details that support that idea from your notes and/or the textbook.
48Answer the following in your journal How do you think Germany felt after World War I?
49What happened to Europe? World War I changed Europe a lot.1. Germany and Austria-Hungary lost a lot of land2. And Russia also lost a lot of land because they had to leave the war early.- 5 new countries were created with the land that Russia lost! (Poland, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia)
50What happened to Europe? Austria and Hungary became 2 separate countries.
51What happened to Europe? Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were created.
52What happened to Europe? Poland and Romania got bigger because they got land from Austria and Hungary.
54Lands in Southwest Asia Became mandates: under the control of another country.Syria became a French mandateIraq and Palestine became British mandates
55The League of NationsGroup of countries to prevent future warsAmericans didn’t want to join even thought Wilson was the one who wanted it!
56So what happened with the League of Nations? Met for the 1st time in 1920 WITHOUT the U.S.!Americans didn’t want to join the League of Nations because they didn’t want to get involved in the problems of Europe.Only lasted until 1940.
57Answer the following questions before you leave: 1. What are the key points of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points?2. Why was the League of Nations a failure?3. How did the map of Europe and Southwest Asia change after WWI and the Treaty of Versailles?
58HomeworkRead through pages in your book and make picture notecards for the following terms:Fourteen PointsSelf-determinationLeague of NationsBuffer ZoneReparationsMandates
59Do Now:Last time you learned about the effects of WWI. Write the definitions for the following vocabulary words:14 PointsWoodrow WilsonReparationsBuffer ZoneNeutral
60Reading Lesson on Effects of WWI Now we are going to read over the chapter on the effects of WWI together
61Before you readFirst we’ll read the “Before You Read” questions to get an idea of what the whole section is going to be about:1. How did World War I change Europe?2. How might nations of the world prevent another world war?
62Introduction What does it tell us about the section? The war ended and the Allies had to figure out:1. How to prevent future wars2. Who should take the blame for the war?
63Let’s think of questions the first heading will answer together: Wilson’s PlanLet’s read through the section once and think of a few questions we could ask a student who has just read this section.