Do Now What do you think happens to the losers of a war?
So now that we know how the war started and what happened…. What happened AFTER the war?
Questions to answer today 1. How did WWI change Europe? 2. How might the nations of the world prevent another world war?
Words to know: Fourteen Points: U.S. President Wilson’s 14 ideas about what countries should do to stay peaceful. Self-determination: the right countries in Europe have to be their own nation. Ex: U.S.A. became independent League of Nations: A group of countries that worked for peace after WWI. Buffer zone: Area of land that separates enemy nations Reparations: Payments the loser of a war has to make to help other countries recover. Mandates: land in one area that is under the control of another country. Ex: Iraq was a mandate of Great Britain after WWI. Woodrow Wilson: The president of the U.S. when World War I ended. Rhineland: buffer zone between France and Germany. Treaty of Versailles: Peace agreement made in France after WWI that punished Germany for the war.
Treaty A treaty is a peace agreement. Have you ever gotten in a fight with someone? How did you make peace? How do you think countries make peace treaties after war? Do you think that after a peace agreement is made, both sides are completely happy? Take 3-5 minutes to answer in your journals
Drawing up the treaty The leaders of Italy, France, Great Britain and Woodrow Wilson from the U.S. led talks to answer 2 questions 1. How can we prevent future wars? 2. and who should take responsibility for the damage of World War I?
Meeting in France: The Treaty of Versailles In 1919, the leaders of Italy, France, Great Britain and U.S.A. met in Versailles, France to talk about those 2 questions. The leaders together were known as: The Big Four
A.United States – Wilson 1.“Peace without victory”: no winner or loser – treat all countries fairly 2. 14 Points 14 Points14 Points A. fourteen ideas B. plan to prevent future wars 3. “Stubborn” and Idealist no bargaining or negotiations (compromise) perfect vision of the future.
The 14 Points Here are just a few of Wilson’s points: -End secret deals between nations -Keep neutral ships safe at sea during war -European nations should all be treated fairly -Different nations should have the right to form their own nations. Self Determination. -Form the League of Nations: Organization of nations that worked for world peace and to stop wars before they started
I. The Big Four B. France – Clemenceau 1. Alsace-Loraine: province that Germany took in 1871- France wanted it back! Alsace-Loraine 2. France wanted harsh treatment of Germany
I. The Big Four C. Great Britain – Lloyd George 1. Moderate punishment of Germany Some punishment – Why? They didn’t have as many casualties (deaths or injuries and weren’t as hurt as France)
BUT Great Britain still wanted to protect the Empire A. Larger empire on earth B. Great Britain DIDN’T agree with self determination: the right of countries to form their own nation states. WHY? Because then they would lose some land
I. The Big Four D. Italy – Orlando 1. Lands from Austria- Hungary– land and islands Before WWI – Triple Alliance Switch sides after WWI starts 2. Left Conference in anger 3. Get little at final treaty
Point of Disagreement U.S.A: President Wilson just wanted peace. He didn’t think that the Central Powers should be punished too harshly because they may get angry and try to start another war.
Point of Disagreement France: Disagreed with Wilson. They believed that Germany should be punished so it was as weak as possible. Then Germany wouldn’t be able to start another war.
Answer in your journal: Why do you think France wanted such a harsh punishment for Germany after World War I?
Motives for the treaty: The Trauma of WWI WWI caused a huge number of casualties: deaths or injuries
% of Casualties by country Russia: sent 12,000,000 troops 76.3% were killed or hurt -France: sent 8.410,000 troops 76.3% were killed or hurt -Britain sent 8,904,467 troops 35.8% were killed or hurt -Germany sent 11,000,000 troops 64.9% were killed or hurt -The U.S. sent 4,355,000 troops 8.2 %were killed or hurt
What do you notice about the % of Russian and German casualties? Russia: sent 12,000,000 troops 76.3% were killed or hurt - Germany sent 11,000,000 troops 64.9% were killed or hurt
Answer the following questions in your journal: 1. How do you feel when you see these images? 2. Why is it significant that major buildings like the courthouse, city hall, and hotels were destroyed 3. How long do you think it would take to re- build these buildings and communities? 4. How much do you think it would cost? 5. Can a community EVER really recover from such destruction?
Based on what you have learned today… How were France’s goals for the treaty (peace agreements) different from U.S. goals? What would France want from Germany, the country that destroyed so much of their land? Would those desires be reasonable or fair?
U.S. perspective: Why do you think the U.S. may have a more idealistic perspective on how to resolve things between countries after the war?
They didn’t lose as much! No battles fought on US land Not nearly as many casualties from the U.S.
VENN DIAGRAM -Many soldiers hurt or killed in WWI -A lot of land and cities were destroyed -Wanted a very harsh punishment for Germany -Not very many soldiers hurt or killed in WWI -No battles fought on U.S. ground -Wanted “Peace without Victory” -Wanted to go “easy” on Germany Part of the Allied Powers Went to peace talks at the Treaty of Versailles France U.S.A. Both
Why harsh treatment of Germany? 1. France was hurt a lot by the war – Western Front 2. Weak Germany won’t attack France in the future. = =
Resolutions? Compromise for Wilson http://finickypenguin.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/compromise.jpg
NOT all nations agreed with the 14 Points. The most important point for Wilson was setting up the League of Nations. SO he was willing to agree to harsher punishment for Germany than he would have liked. http://knowledgenews.net/moxie/moxiepix/a1907.jpg
Results of The Treaty of Versailles The bad side of compromise Compromise – decision after bargaining 1.No one is happy
Self-Determination Definition: right of different nationalities to form their own nation states instead of being easily taken over by other countries In Europe ONLY…British empire is safe. New countries in Eastern Europe
What happened to Germany? 1. Lost all African and Asian Colonies
2. Army cut down to 100,000 http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51APZ0CP4KL._SL500_AA240_.jpg
Weapons Reduction ONLY Germany 100,000 soldiers No navy No air force
3. No more building submarines! http://farm1.static.flickr.com/15/21349370_929360c6d6.jpg?v=0
4. Return land to France And create buffer zone: area where Germany was never allowed to put soldiers. In France this land was the Rhineland.
6. Germany had to take FULL BLAME for starting the War http://i5.photobucket.com/albums/y164/wteach/demotivational/blame.jpg
Germany had to pay Reparations money paid by losers to winner of a war 37 billion USD (around 1 trillion USD) hurt German economy
Germans couldn’t afford to pay http://www.clipartheaven.com/clipart/money/empty_pockets.gif
Main Ideas Fill in a “Main Idea” worksheet. Write in the main idea: “The Treaty of Versailles punished Germany Harshly. Fill in details that support that idea from your notes and/or the textbook.
Answer the following in your journal How do you think Germany felt after World War I?
What happened to Europe? World War I changed Europe a lot. 1. Germany and Austria-Hungary lost a lot of land 2. And Russia also lost a lot of land because they had to leave the war early. - 5 new countries were created with the land that Russia lost! (Poland, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia)
What happened to Europe? Austria and Hungary became 2 separate countries.
What happened to Europe? Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were created.
What happened to Europe? Poland and Romania got bigger because they got land from Austria and Hungary.
Lands in Southwest Asia Became mandates: under the control of another country. Syria became a French mandate Iraq and Palestine became British mandates
The League of Nations Group of countries to prevent future wars Americans didn’t want to join even thought Wilson was the one who wanted it!
So what happened with the League of Nations? Met for the 1 st time in 1920 WITHOUT the U.S.! Americans didn’t want to join the League of Nations because they didn’t want to get involved in the problems of Europe. Only lasted until 1940.
Answer the following questions before you leave: 1. What are the key points of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points? 2. Why was the League of Nations a failure? 3. How did the map of Europe and Southwest Asia change after WWI and the Treaty of Versailles?
Homework Read through pages 418-422 in your book and make picture notecards for the following terms: Fourteen Points Self-determination League of Nations Buffer Zone Reparations Mandates
Do Now: Last time you learned about the effects of WWI. Write the definitions for the following vocabulary words: 14 Points Woodrow Wilson Reparations Buffer Zone Neutral
Reading Lesson on Effects of WWI Now we are going to read over the chapter on the effects of WWI together
Before you read First we’ll read the “Before You Read” questions to get an idea of what the whole section is going to be about: 1. How did World War I change Europe? 2. How might nations of the world prevent another world war?
Introduction What does it tell us about the section? The war ended and the Allies had to figure out: 1. How to prevent future wars 2. Who should take the blame for the war?
Let’s think of questions the first heading will answer together: Wilson’s Plan Let’s read through the section once and think of a few questions we could ask a student who has just read this section.
Questions: Who was Wilson and what was his plan?
The League of Nations Questions: 1. What is the League of Nations and what were the goals of the League? 2. How did other leaders besides Wilson feel about Germany’s punishment?