Presentation on theme: "Lecture 13 preposition 1. Classification of preposition 2. Collocation of prepositions with adjectives, verbs and nouns 3. Transformation between prepositional."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 13 preposition 1. Classification of preposition 2. Collocation of prepositions with adjectives, verbs and nouns 3. Transformation between prepositional phrases and subordinate clauses
What is a preposition? A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount etc. The group will meet at 7 at the spots center.
Did you ever travel before the war? I have a strange feeling that I have been here before.
Prepositions are mainly used to relate people or things in place or in time. Prepositions relating to place 1. at in on Our train arrived __ New York at midnight. You may hang the picture ___ the wall. There is a bookshelf ___ the corner of the room. Generally speaking, when used in locative sense, at is associated with a point, on with a line or the surface of something, and in with an area or the volume of something. (Quirk)
2. over, above, under and below She leant __ the river to see her reflection in the water. The temperature was __ freezing last night. The clouds hung low ___ the hills. The conference was badly attended: __ two hundred people came. Is the position of Managing Editor __ or __ that of a Editorial Director? Above and below merely indicate a higher or lower position or level, while over and under indicate a vertical relationship and are synonymous with “directly above” and “directly below”.
on the sea. out of the harbor. under the bridge. across the Atlantic. The ship sailed up the river. by the river. down the river. against the wind. before the wind.
Classification of prep. In terms of word-formation: Simple prep.: one word Complex prep.: “multi-word prepositions” two or more than two words, two-word, three-word, four-word Attention: complex prep. are unalterable, not free prepositional phrases. in spite of Prepositions bearing the –ing ending derived from verbs, formal and literal.
Two-word prepositions according to except for ahead of instead of next to regardless of irrespective of as to because of owing to but forprevious(ly) to due tothanks to Except for one question on calculus, Julian got all the maths questions right. The house would have been destroyed but for the quick thinking of the firefighters.
Three-word prepositions on behalf of in spite of with respect to on account of by way offor fear of on top of for lack of in addition to in case of with reference to in terms of Harry achieved his aim by force of sheer determination. If he thought a thing right, he should do it without regard to consequences.
Four-word prepositions at the expense of on the ground(s) of at the mercy of for the purpose of at the rate of on the point of to the exclusion of for the sake of in the event of with a view to The boy was left in the care of his uncle. The shipwrecked sailors were at the mercy of the wing and waves.
Collocation of prepositions with adjectives, verbs and nouns 1. Prepositions after verbs Combinations fall into the following types: a) verb+ preposition, eg: prevail on, appear to, apply for, etc. b) verb+ object+ preposition, eg: exclude… from, take… for, etc. c) Verb+ adverb particle+ preposition, e g: break in on, come up against, hold out on,get off with, put down to, d) verb+ object+ adverb particle+ preposition, e g: take one’s resentment out on, put something over on, etc.
2. Prepositions after adjectives Adjectives can collocate with prepositions to form adjective phrases. Joe was very disappointed at not finding her at home. His parents will be disappointed with her if she fails the exam.
Compare: She got mad at/with the man. Helen got mad about the musician. What she said was right for the occasion. He was right in his answer. He is guilty of the murder. He felt guilty about having done that. The famous poet is known to all of us. A man is known by the company he keeps. He is known to us as a great philosopher. Her mother is known for her cooking.
collocation of prepositions with nouns 1. Noun+ preposition a solution to, faith in, a glance at, need for 2. Preposition + noun on one’s guard, at one’s request, in all probability, to one’s delight,etc.
The entrance to the museum The talent for writing. The rising sun in the morning. The witness to history A man after fame and gain A longing for freedom A walk in the moonlight The birds in the tree
Exercises: Parents often wait up __ their children. We will continue to live up __ our promises. It dawned __ me that I had been tricked. This water tastes __ salt. I’m not in the mood __ going to the party. I’ve had enough __ this weather. Her marriage __ Smith didn’t last very long. There is a limit __ every man’s patience. He takes pride __ doing things properly.
We met him __ accident, quite __ chance. Nobody knows the age of the earth __ certain. The tea is not __ my liking. Health is __ more value than money. Jack feels homesick __ his own country. The dog seemed suspicious __ everybody. In the past, men were superior __ women.
Transformation between prepositional phrases and subordinate clauses 1) Prepositional phrase vs. that-clause Are you sure about Simon’s disappearance? = Are you sure that Simon has disappeared? 2) Prepositional phrase vs. adverbial clause. Despite the city's many attractions, Johnny still preferred his cottage in the country. = Although the cite has many attractions, Johnny still preferred his cottage in the country. 3) Prepositional phrase vs. relative clause The man with a red beard is talking to Henry’s father. = The man who has a red beard is talking to Henry's father.
Exercises: We were obliged to rest, because it was intensely hot. I must remind you that you have a responsibility towards your friends. If it had not been for Wallis, we would have lost the match.