Presentation on theme: "INVERSION Putting the verb before the subject. Two kinds of inversion an auxiliary verb comes before the subject and the rest of the verb comes after."— Presentation transcript:
INVERSION Putting the verb before the subject. Two kinds of inversion an auxiliary verb comes before the subject and the rest of the verb comes after. If no auxiliary, do, does or did is added. Only yesterday did I realize what was going on. the whole verb comes before the subject; do or did aren’t used. Round the corner came a milkman.
a)Sentences with if should, had, were (formal way) Should you hear anything let me know at once. Were they to escape, there would be an outcry. Were Smith to resign, I might stand a chance of getting his job. Had I known what was going to happen, I would never have left her alone. Were it not for your help, I’d still be homeless.
b)after so/such with that (adverbial clause of result) –So + adjective So devastating were the floods that some areas may never recover. So well-known is John that everybody knows him. So exhausted were the runners that none of them finished the race. –Such used with be means so much / so great. Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted. Such are his reactions that no one can match him. Such was the demand for the tickets that people queued day and night. Such was the uncertainty that financial markets remained closed.
c) after adverbial expressions of place. (Whole verb is put before the subject. Do and did are never used. In intransitive verb With verbs of position (live, sit, stand, lie) With verbs of motion (come, go, rise, walk) only in descriptive writing. At the top of the hill stood my little cottage. In the midst of two small hills flowed a great river. In the cornfield lay the soldiers. Under a tree was sitting one of the tallest man. Among the bushes stands George. possible in passive with other verbs. In the distance could be seen the purple mountains. not possible when the subject is a pronoun. At the top of the hill it stood out againt the sky.
d)after as. She travelled a great deal, as did most of her friends. We were short of money, as were most people in our neighborhood. Some people still live in caves as did their ancestors. e)after neither, nor and so I don’t like Mozart - Nor / Neither do I. I’m going home - So am I.
f)after there, here Not progressive tense Here comes a taxi There goes the last train common with come and go when the subject is a pronoun not possible. g)after adverbs such as up, down, out, off Down came the rain and up went the umbrellas. Off went George. Up into the air went the balloon.
h)after negative adverbials when tha adverbial occurs at the beginning. formal language I-never, rarely, seldom in comparisons most commonly used with present perfect or past perfect or with modals such as can/could sentences often contain comparatives Rarely have I had so much responsibility. Seldom has the team given a worse performance. Never have I felt better. Rarely had his father been more helpful. Seldom had I seen such a remarkable creature.
II-hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner these refor to an event which quickly follows another in the past. usually used with past perfect. Hardly had the train left the station when there was an explosion. No sooner had I reached the door than I realized it was locked. Scarcely had we started lunch when the doorbell rang.
III.Only.... only comes at the beginning. only combines with other time expressions and is usually used with simple past. Only if / only when / only then / only later. Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work. Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a stamp. Only when I turned on the light did we notice the hole in the ceiling. Only if there happens an earthquake will the school be closed.
IV.... no/not... under no circumstances, on no account, at no time, in no way, on no condition, not until, not only... but also... On no condition are they to open fire without a warning. Not until I got home did I notice that I had the wrong umbrella. Under no circumstances can customers money be refunded. On no account are visitors allowed to feed the animals. Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to losing our lives. At no time was the President aware of what was happening. In no way can Mr. Pethers be held responsible.
V.Little Little has a negative meaning in this sense. –Little does the government appreciate what the results will be. –Little did Jack know what he was supposed to do. –Little did the police suspect that the judge was the murderer.