Presentation on theme: "Grammar Presentation: Punctuation GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar Presentation: Punctuation GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services
Outline The comma The semicolon The colon The apostrophe
Punctuation Verbal English has many pauses Punctuation indicates when to pause in written text Errors in grammar can obscure meaning The panda eats, shoots, and leaves. The panda eats shoots and leaves.
The Comma (, ) Short pause I err on the side of taking commas out
Comma: 1 Joining independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but...) Example: The feedback improved, and the module had a stronger output.
Comma: 2 Joining an independent clause and a dependent clause Example: Although I had difficulty, I still prevailed.
Comma: 3 Separating items in a series Example: I have the most trouble with spelling, grammar and punctuation.
Comma: 3 Comma before ‘and’ is optional, unless needed for clarity Example: Snakes and ladders, hide and seek, and tag are Jim’s favourite games.
Comma: 4 Setting off non-restrictive elements Example: The sample, which contained sulfur, did not react. To begin, the fundamental argument of Freud... Exception for short sentences: Then it started.
The Semicolon ( ; ) A longer pause Rule of thumb, only use when a period would also suffice
The Semicolon: 1 Joining independent clauses, with or without a subordinating conjunction (‘however, although, on the other hand...’) Example: The sample was tainted; it had no effect. We completed the circuit; however, the light would not turn on.
The Semicolon: 2 Separating items in a series that contain commas Example: Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how grim, will be happily resolved; that no one knows more about human nature than she; and that Henry, who is thirty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry.
The Colon ( : ) Big pause Completely different than the semicolon
The Colon: 1 Introduce a list or phrase after an independent clause Example: Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how grim, will be happily resolved; that no one knows more about human nature than she; and that Henry, who is thirty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry.
The Colon: 1 If what follows the colon is a complete sentence, you may capitalize the first letter Examples: Also note that some people like to capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon: They believe it is more stylistically appropriate.
The Colon: 2 Displayed equations must be introduced with an independent clause followed by a colon Then, double space, write out equation, double space, start new paragraph
The Colon: 2 Example: The following equation details the expression: The following equation details the expression: (1) (1) a = bc + 2d a = bc + 2d The application of this... The application of this...
The Colon: 2 Equations within a text do not require a colon Example: “The equation 2a = b + c showed...”
The Apostrophe: 1 Used in contractions Generally, contractions are inappropriate in academic writing Example: Temperature didn’t affect the reaction. Temperature did not affect the reaction.
The Apostrophe: 2 Indicates possession Example: Freud’s argument states that...
Apostrophe: 2 Rule of thumb: If you pronounce the s add ’s If not, add ’ Examples: The boy’s room (one boy) The boys’ room (two boys) Jess’s dog used to be Rex’s