2 Capital LettersSmall LettersCommaFull StopSemicolonColonParenthesisSquare BracketsHypenDashExclamation MarkQuestion MarkQuatation MarkApostrophe
3 Capital Letters First letter of a sentence Pronoun “I” Proper nouns: names of people, places, organization, countries, nationalities & languagesDays of week, Months of the year & holidaysTrade marks & Abbreviation (short forms)
4 Comma Before but, and, for, or, so, yet After phrases, clauses (Ex. The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.)After phrases, clauses(Ex. While I was eating, the cat jumped in.During the holidays, we went to Singapore.To get a seat, you better come early.The food, on the other hand, is bland.That Tuesday, which happens to be a public holiday, we can cancel the meeting.)After yes, no, however, well, therefore, hence(Yes, the package should arrive soon.However, you may not be satisfied with the results.)
5 Semi Colon Link two complete sentences (Ex. I'm going to the store; I need to buy oranges.My name is Teo; I'm studying at New Era College.)Use in a sentence before conjunctions(I wanted to send the goods today; however, I had to cancel it due to the bad weather.)
6 Colon Introducing list or examples Separate book titles, hour and time (Ex. I need to order a few things: A4 size paper, staplers, blue pens, and English dictionary.Separate book titles, hour and time(Ex. English Grammar : A Useful Guide3:30 p.m.)
7 Parenthesis To set off words, hrases, clauses or sentences Ex. Carl wanted a car (Proton Exora).Take this over to that girl ( the one with red hair) and tell her to read it.Although she has three pets (two dogs and one cat), she left them with her aunt.
8 Parenthesis To enclose number, letter, or symbol Ex. There were eight (8) new rules added.Be sure to include a copyright symbol in that statement.To enclose area code of a phone numberEx. (04)
9 To show an addition to a direnct quotation Square BracketsTo show an addition to a direnct quotation'Hello everyone. I hope that you [the employees] will enjoy the meeting this evening.'
11 To show a change of thought DashTo show a change of thoughtEx. We went to Pulau Langkawi last year – or perhaps the year before the last.To explainEx. The reporter pursued the woman – he wanted to get some responses from her.Use double dashEx. She saw her sisters – all five of them – standing in front of the building.
12 Exclamation Mark To show strong feelings or raised voices Ex. Go away! I hate you!Shut up!A non-question begins with “what” or “how”Ex. How pretty she looked in that dress!What idiots we are!Informal writingEx. Remember, don't be late!I'll never understand this!
13 Questions Marks To ask Turn a statement into a question Question Tags Ex. Are there any letters for me this morning?Turn a statement into a questionEx. She didn't actually quit her job?Question TagsThere is an order, isn't it?You found the documents, didn't you?
14 The opostrophe Contractions – short forms Possessive Form Ex. isn't, she's, I've, They'rePossessive FormEx. Did you see Molly's letter?There is a discount on the ladies' shoes.