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CSCI-1305 Introduction to Computer Hardware Introduction to Computers.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCI-1305 Introduction to Computer Hardware Introduction to Computers."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCI-1305 Introduction to Computer Hardware Introduction to Computers

2 What is a Computer? A computer is... a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A machine is anything that makes work easier. Data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer through the use of instructions Instructions are any sequence of statements or declarations written in some human-readable computer programming language.

3 Example of a Computer A calculator makes manipulating numbers easier. (Machine) Numbers are the form of data suitable for use with a calculator. (Data) Instructions to the calculator are the buttons pressed in sequence that produce some desired result. (Instructions) Other examples?

4 Any part of your computer you can see, feel or touch. What is Hardware? Electronic instructions stored on your computer that cause the computer to respond to your instructions

5 Types of Computers Super Computers & Mainframes Servers Desktops & Laptops Hand Held Devices Embedded Large Scale Computers Medium Scale Computers Small Scale Computers Very Small Scale Computers Embedded Computers

6 Super Computers  NASA – number crunching  Government - logistics  Universities - research Mainframes  Usually used for inventory, customer accounts, employee payroll (big businesses like Amazon or Walmart would use mainframes) Large Scale Computers Super Computers & Mainframes

7 Supercomputers & Mainframe (Large Scale) Data Bioinformatics Human body system functions Astronomical entities, spacial coordinates Scenario based probability and statistics Logistical numbers Business accounts Instructions Calculations needed to simulate body functions, celestial events, crunch numbers Business payroll calculations, inventory levels, etc. Super Computers & Mainframes Database files containing customer information, inventory, or payroll are often stored on mainframe computers

8 Medium Scale Computers Servers Small Businesses needs Dedicated Uses Printing Directories (User Logins) (Dedicated Purpose) Webhosting Database Application

9 Servers (Medium Scale) Data Your s (An server is a medium scale computer) Your term papers to print Your request to go to a website Instructions Is the spam Which paper gets printed first The html code to format the webpage as you see it displayed Servers

10 Small Scale Computers Desktops Towers Vertical form factor Horizontal form factor Workstations All-in-one form factor (One piece of equipment where the components reside) Laptops/Netbooks Space saving Energy saving Tablets (Touch Screens) Mobile Ipad Even though all of these computers fit in the Small Scale Category, the smaller laptops, netbooks, and tablets are not usually as powerful as the larger desktops.

11 Desktops, Laptops & Tablets (Small Scale) Data Your Music Your videos Online Books Games Documents Instructions Play your music in stereo on your speakers including the base Allow your video to be shown on your monitor Open, close, delete, print your documents Downloads Small Scale Computers

12 Very Small Scale Computers Mobility/PDA Devices Smart Phones Iphone Blackberry Andriod Windows Mobile The most common operating systems that run on PDA devices include iPhone, Blackberry, Android, and Windows Mobile.

13 PDA, Cell Phones & Mobility (Very Small Scale) Data Addresses Phone numbers Appointments Instructions Interface with your SIM (subscriber identity module) card so that the call connects Make the unit alert you to an appointment you have scheduled Very Small Scale Computers

14 Embedded Devices Targets specific application instead of platform Refrigerators Washer/Dryers Microwave Ovens Televisions Air conditioners Automobiles DVR VCR

15 Embedded Data Your input on the specific device Instructions Tivo – record your selected programs Microwave - pop your popcorn Frig. - keep your frozen foods frozen Washer - begin the rinse cycle Modem - connect your computer to the internet Embedded Devices

16 What is a Computer? A computer is... a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A machine is anything that makes work easier. Data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer thru the use of instructions Instructions are any sequence of statements or declarations written in some human-readable computer programming language.

17 What Makes up a Computer? RAM (Temporary Storage) CPU (Central Processing Unit) Video Card (Quality of Graphics) Sound Card (Quality of Sound) Network Card (Connection) Mother Board (Printed Circuit Board Containing principle components) (Example: You might buy a different sound card if you wanted to use surround sound)

18 Computer Components Processor(s) CPU (Central Processing Unit) Input devices Clickers, keyboards, etc. Output devices Speakers, Printers, etc. Memory RAM (Random Access Memory) Storage devices Hard drive, USB Drive, DVD Recorders

19 Computer Components Processor = CPU Input Devices = Clickers, mouse, keyboards,etc. Memory = RAM Output Devices = Speakers, Printers, Monitors Storage Devices = CD, DVD, Hard Drive, Flash Drives

20 About Processors Most today are dual core The Two Major Vendors Are: Intel AMD Mobile Devices Samsung Motorola Others Dual Core Pentium most common while Quad core is becoming more common

21 History of Processors (CPU) Based on the history of CPU’s, a 286 processor is less powerful than a Pentium processor Pentuim

22 Dual Core Processor is the Most Common CPU Most common brands are Intel and AMD Dual core does not run 2 times faster and quad core does not run 4 times faster. The reason is that both are still funneled into the same cache.

23 Input Devices Mouse – wired vs wireless Keyboard Stylus Touch pad, track point Presentation/Audience Response Clicker Scanner/copier/Checkout scanner Camera

24 Output Devices Monitor Sound Pay for sound quality Legacy vs. sound card Speaker Quality Video Pay for video speed and pixel quality Printer Laser vs. Inkjet

25 Computer Memory RAM Cache (The CPU can get to cache faster) (Ram and cache are not exactly the same thing)

26 Computer Memory The more you want the more it costs Believe or not – memory for older machines cost more even though you are getting less memory for your dollar. Cache memory is costly, but worth the price if performance is an issue Buying memory upgrades (RAM) for older computers is expensive because you are are buying older technology that is actually more costly.

27 Types of Storage Hard drive Internal External CD (Often for Music) DVD (Used for Movies) Flash Solid state – newest Like RAM (Temporary) Short Life Expectancy Solid state storage (SSS) is a new type of computer storage media that is made from silicon microchips. (There are many different styles and sizes of flash media storage)

28 Storage Devices Today’s drives are measured in Gigabytes and Terabytes – next peta, exa, zetta… Storage device sizes are measured in GigaBytes

29 Communication Speeds Communication Modem 56k DSL Cable Network 10 megabit 100 megabit 1 gigabit Communication speeds are measured in gigabits.

30 Common Major Vendors Dell Acer HP Apple

31 What is a Computer? A computer is... a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A machine is anything that makes work easier. Data is anything in a form suitable for use with a computer thru the use of instructions Instructions are any sequence of statements or declarations written in some human-readable computer programming language.

32 Types of Computers Super Computers & Mainframes Servers Desktops & Laptops Hand Held Devices Embedded Large Scale Computers Medium Scale Computers Small Scale Computers Very Small Scale Computers Embedded Computers

33 Study Hard! Go to and find the PowerPoint review. Open the file and study! Good Luck!


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