Presentation on theme: "Post WWII to Cold War. Impact of WWII World War II killed as many as 75 million people. In European countries alone 38 million people died, with the Soviet."— Presentation transcript:
Post WWII to Cold War
Impact of WWII World War II killed as many as 75 million people. In European countries alone 38 million people died, with the Soviet Union experiencing the heaviest casualties at 22 million. Throughout Europe and Asia, cities were completely destroyed due to aerial bombs and new advanced weaponry. The cities that experienced the most destruction were Coventry in England; Hamburg and Dresden in Germany; and Tokyo, Nagasaki, and Hiroshima in Japan. The economies of war-torn countries took many years to recover.
War Crime Trials At meetings during the war, Allied leaders had agreed to punish those responsible for “crimes against humanity.” Trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany. Hitler was already dead at the time, however 22 surviving Nazi leaders were tried and convicted at the Nuremberg trials. Many Nazi officials who were placed on trial justified their horrific actions at the various concentration camps by claiming that they were “just following the orders of their commanding officers.” These Nazi officials were convicted, and in some cases given the death penalty. These trials demonstrated that leaders could be held accountable for their actions during war.
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United Nations World War II resulted in the formation of a new international body. In April 1945, representatives from nations around the world met in San Francisco to establish the United Nations. The purpose of the United Nations is to provide a place to discuss world problems and develop solutions. There are two main bodies of the United Nations: General Assembly- consists of representatives from all member nations, each representative has one vote. Security Council- consists of 15 member nations, five of which are permanent; United States, Russia, France, Great Britain, and China.
Occupied Nations In order to prevent another world war and to promote democracy, western nations occupied West Germany and Japan. They built new governments with democratic constitutions, which protected individual rights and liberties. However, Soviet forces took control of East Germany and most of Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union established communist governments in these nations. Ultimately, Europe was divided in two- between democracy in the west and communism in the east. After 1945, the world became divided between communist and democratic forms of government.
A Divided Europe After WWII, with the help from the United States and Great Britain, democracy and free enterprise were restored to the nations of Western Europe. Eastern Europe, however was occupied by the armies of the Soviet Union. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, wanted to spread communism all over the area. Although he promised free-elections for Eastern Europe, he instead supported the establishment of pro-communist government throughout the region. Soon Europe was divided by an imaginary line known as the iron curtain. In the west were the western democracies, led by the United States, and in the east were the Soviet-dominated communist countries.
Democratic vs. Communist Democratic political system carried out by the people directly or by elected representatives. is a rule by the people and the elected representatives are bound to fulfill the wishes of the society. free enterprising is allowed, which means that people or groups can have their own businesses. This can lead to rich and poor in society. But democracy is based on the principle of equality and freedom. It is also based on the principle that all citizens have equal rights.freedom Communist common ownership, mainly concerned with equality and fairness power is vested in an individual or group of people who decide a course of action. It is this group of people who decide on the activities of the public. the government has complete control over the production and distribution of goods and all the resources and it is shared in the society equally (command economy) the community or the society holds the major resources and production. This helps in preventing any single person or a group of people from raising to a higher position than others or becoming rich
Containment In March of 1947, President Harry Truman established a policy known as the Truman Doctrine. This was an economic and military program designed to help other nations resist Soviet aggression. A major philosophy of the Truman Doctrine was the idea of Containment, or limiting Communism to where it already existed (countries under Soviet control) The United States pledged to resist Soviet expansion anywhere in the world. Truman sent military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey so that they could resist the threat of Communism.
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan, also proposed in 1947 was a massive economic aid package designed to strengthen democratic governments and lessen the appeal of Communism. Billions of American dollars helped Western European countries recover from World War II. Although the United States offered this plan to the countries of Eastern Europe, Stalin did not allow these countries to accept it. Why do you think Stalin did not want the countries of Eastern Europe to accept economic aid? __________________________________________________
Crisis in Germany After WWII, Germany was divided in four military zones Three of the four zones were controlled by the United States, Britain, and France. These zones were located in Western Germany and were later combined, due to their common goals in regards to government (democratic). The Soviets on the other hand, controlled the remaining zone in Eastern Germany, and attempted to put forth a communist form of government in this zone. Tension grew between democratic western Germany and Soviet controlled eastern Germany. The United States and the Allies wanted to rebuild the German economy, but Joseph Stalin feared a strong united Germany. Berlin, the capital of Germany was located in Eastern Germany (Communist).
Berlin Airlift In 1948, Stalin hoped to force the Allies out of Berlin by closing all land routes that were used to bring important supplies to Western Germany. In response to this crisis, the western powers engaged in a successful airlift. For almost a year, food and supplies were flown into West Berlin. Finally, the Soviets ended the blockade. https://www.google.com/search?q=berlin+airlift&source=lnms& tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=AWvMUseBNrSqsAT1- oDYDQ&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1920&bih=963
A Divided Germany The Berlin Airlift ultimately lead to the division of Germany. Western Germany was known as the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1961, Eastern Germany built a wall that separated East Berlin from West Berlin. This wall was known as the Berlin Wall. East German soldiers shot anyone who attempted to escape from East Germany. airlift/videos#deconstructing-history-berlin-wall
Military Alliances The NATO Alliance After the Berlin Airlift and the division of West Germany from East Germany, Western European countries formed a military alliance. It was called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO. Members of NATO pledged to support each other if any member nation was attacked. The Warsaw Pact In 1955, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact. It included the Soviet Union and its seven satellites in Eastern Europe. A satellite was the name given to the Eastern European countries that were under Soviet control.
The Cold War Heats Up Repression in Eastern Europe The Soviet Union kept a tight grip on its Eastern European satellites. Tension arose in both East Germany and Poland in the 1950’S. In East Germany a revolt was put down by Soviet tanks. In Poland some reforms were made, yet the country remained under Soviet control Although Stalin died in 1953, his successors continued his policy of repression. Hungarian Revolt In 1956, a revolution began in Hungary and was led by Imre Nagy. Nagy was a Hungarian nationalist and communist. Nagy ended the one-party rule in Hungary, got rid of Soviet troops, and withdrew Hungary from the Warsaw Pact. In response, the Soviets sent in troops and tanks and quickly stopped the Hungarian Revolt.
The Arms Race Both the United States and the Soviet Union armed themselves, each preparing to withstand an attack from the other. The United States had developed the atomic bomb during World War II; Soviet scientists developed their own in For 40 years, the two superpowers spent great amounts of money to develop more and more powerful weapons. The Arms Race raised the level of tension between the two superpowers. It also raised fears among many people that the superpowers may become involved in a conflict that would destroy the world.
Space Race The superpowers also competed in space. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, which was a satellite, into orbit around the Earth. Congress soon established NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to improve American space technology. Shortly after, in 1958, the United States launched its own first satellite. In response to the first US satellite sent into orbit, the Soviet Union sent the first man into space. In 1969, the United States was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both the Soviet Union and the United States explored the military use of space with spy satellites.
Conflicts Around the World Although the United States and the Soviet Union did not engage in war with each other, they did become involved in other nation’s conflicts around the world. This means that the United States and the Soviet Union supported opposing forces in many nations throughout the world. These conflicts took place in East Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America.
The Cold War in East Asia Cold War tensions grew into bitter wars fought in Korea in the 1950’s and in Vietnam in the 1960’s. In each case, the superpowers supported opposing sides with economic aid, advisors, and troops. Korean War After WWII, Korea was divided into North Korea (occupied by the Soviet Union), and South Korea (occupied by the United States). North Korean forces, attempting to unify the country under Communist rule, invaded South Korea in U.S. commander Douglas MacArthur prevented a Communist takeover of South Korea. Korea remains divided to this day (North- Communist, South- Democratic). ce=univ&sa=X&ei=h6DVUo24B4rwkQfVv4EI&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQsAQ&b iw=1280&bih=930&surl=1&safe=active
The Cold War in East Asia Vietnam War In 1954, Vietnam was temporarily divided into a northern half, ruled by communist leader Ho Chi Minh, and southern half, headed by non-communist Ngo Dinh Diem. Large numbers of American soldiers were sent to Vietnam to prevent Ho Chi Minh from uniting Vietnam under northern rule (communist). American forces were not able to defeat the communist forces of North Vietnam. President Richard Nixon ordered a cease-fire and began to pull troops out of Vietnam. In 1975, the North Vietnamese captured Saigon, reuniting Vietnam.
The Cold War in the Middle East Iran and Iraq Rivalries over oil resources fueled Cold War tensions in the Middle East. The United States and the Soviet Union became interested in Iran after vast oil fields were discovered there. An Iranian communist leader attempted to nationalize the oil industry. The United States helped to keep this communist leader from gaining power. The United States instead supported the repressive anti-communist shah of Iran with weapons and advisors. An Islamic revolution in 1979, toppled the shah’s regime The Soviet Union meanwhile supported Iraq, which had become dictatorship in 1960’s and also had oil reserves. The Soviet Union also supported governments in Syria and Libya.
The Cold War in Latin America Cuba Cuba had won its independence from Spain in For 60 years, Cuba was strongly influenced by the United States. In 1952, Fulgencio Batista seized power and ran a repressive and corrupt government. Among those who opposed Batista was a young lawyer named Fidel Castro. Castro organized a guerilla army and seized control from Batista and his corrupt government. Once in power, Castro established a communist dictatorship in Cuba, therefore gaining support from the Soviet Union. Cuba became engaged in the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States
The Cold War in Latin America In 1961, the United States backed a plot by Cuban exiles to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, which turned out to be a massive failure. As a result, the United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba. Angered by American interference, Castro closely aligned himself with the Soviet Union. Castro allowed the Soviet Union to build nuclear missile bases in Cuba, 90 miles off the coast of Florida. In 1962, President Kennedy demanded Soviet removal of nuclear weapons from Cuba, to which the Soviets agreed. However, since the Soviets removed their nuclear weapons, the United States had to promise not to invade Cuba.