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Japan forcibly opened to western trade by the U.S. navy in 1854 Emperor Meiji decided to modernize and industrialize Japan Emperor was head of the Shinto.

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Presentation on theme: "Japan forcibly opened to western trade by the U.S. navy in 1854 Emperor Meiji decided to modernize and industrialize Japan Emperor was head of the Shinto."— Presentation transcript:

1 Japan forcibly opened to western trade by the U.S. navy in 1854 Emperor Meiji decided to modernize and industrialize Japan Emperor was head of the Shinto religion (supposedly descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu) as well as the political leader of Japan Rising Sun flag = military flag/Imperial Japanese Army war flag of Japan Flag of Japan today Photo of Emperor Meiji in the 1890’s Shinto symbol

2 Sun goddess- Amaterasu Shinto symbol Chrysanthemum

3  Constitution required members of army and navy in government, had veto power  Meiji married his 1 st cousin and had an insane son, Taisho  Taisho reached the throne in 1912, amidst ritual suicides  Taisho was supposed to address the Diet (Japanese legislature) in 1913; he instead rolled up his speech and looked at the Diet like it was a telescope  Military takes over government from incompetent Taisho in 1926  Taisho’s son Hirohito becomes emperor in 1926 Emperor Taisho (left) & Emperor Hirohito (right)

4  Japan has almost no natural resources; Japan began attacking her neighbors trying to obtain their natural resources  First Sino-Japanese War took place in1895; Japan beat China and became the top regional(local) power  Allied countries made Japan give back most of the gains they took from China which humiliated Japan Flag of the Qing dynasty (China);1890-1912 First Sino- Japanese war map of battles

5 Painting of First Sino-Japanese War

6  Japanese started with a sneak attack on Port Arthur (no declaration of war)  Japanese use suicide sailors to sink ships in front of harbor at Port Arthur, crews sink vessels, then come ashore and charge Russian forts and die  Tsushima Straits 20 Russian ships sunk, 5 captured, 5 escaped  Japanese lost 3 ships Andreevsky flag ensign of the Russian Navy

7 Russo-Japanese War map Painting of Russo-Japanese War

8 Black Dragon Society  Was founded as a criminal organization  Became interested in Japanese expansion into Siberia and Manchuria, opium traders, assassins of political opponents  Supported Nationalists under Sun Yat- sen (below left) and Chiang Kai-shek (below right) to overthrow Manchu dynasty, succeeded in 1911, Manchu’s dynasty opposed drug trafficking  Made Korea colony in 1910  Fought on allied side in WWI, limited fighting in German owned islands in the Pacific  Allies refused to accept “Racial Equality Clause” in Treaty of Versailles  Seemed to be on way to democracy by the 1920’s Manchu (Ding) Dynasty flag

9  4 giant Zaibatsu (giant, powerful Japanese business conglomerates)  Mitsui (Finance), Yasuda (Finance), Sumitomo (Mining), Mitsubishi (Military transport) dominated trade and industry, used by Japan to produce goods for war  1924, U.S. pass Exclusion Act banning Japanese immigration Army ruled by samurai - military nobility Code of bushido “The Way of the Warrior”- code of conduct for Samurai, includes honor until death – no surrender The Japanese believed if you died fighting for the emperor you would be rewarded in heaven, or be re-incarnated to serve the emperor again under better circumstances in your next life

10 Samurai The seven codes of Bushido should be followed by the Samurai every day (right) Kanji symbol for Bushido(left) Samurai sword

11 RISE OF NATIONALISM  Japan began to see herself as the rightful ruler of Asia, wanted to replace western powers as imperial power in Asia  Nationalist movement became strong, opponents in politics were assassinated  Japanese policy led to China, first Manchuria, iron, coal, steel  China was trying to modernize, was ruled by warlords Kenji Doihara  Japanese spymaster in Manchuria  Achieved position by selling his young sister to a high Japanese official  Operated brothels and opium dens to entrap Chinese officials  Prostitutes paid 1 free pipe for each one sold to Chinese, executed if addicted Japanese  Proceeds used to fund Japanese army in Manchuria  Assassinated warlord of Manchuria by blowing up his train Flag of Manchuria; 1922 & Kenji Doihara

12 Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek, his army is called the Kuomintang Communists led by Mao Tse-tung (aka Zedong) Spy Eastern Jewel hired Chinese gangs to burglarize Japanese merchants and destroy homes in Shanghai, Japanese then invade until west opposes as obvious plot ChiangMao Eastern Jewel, dressed like a man Mukden Incident September 18, 1931, Japanese army acted without orders Japanese fake an attempt to blow up their railroad in Manchuria, place charge far from tracks so not to blow up any of the rails, blamed the Chinese and use it as excuse to take Manchuria, attacked Chinese barracks without warning (Japan lost 2 soldiers, and won Manchuria) Japanese experts inspect the scene of the 'railway sabotage' on South Manchurian Railway, leading to the Mukden Incident and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria

13 Republic of China The Mukden Incident Museum (literally, "September 18th History Museum") in Shenyang Shenyang Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident Japanese troops enter Chinese city after Mukden Incident

14  Japan set up a puppet state of Manchukuo, February 18, 1932, with former Chinese emperor Henry Pu-Y in charge  The Japanese wanted to convince Pu-Yi to move to Mukden and take the throne, and then authorize Japanese troops  Doihara sent Pu-Yi’s relative, Eastern Jewel, to seduce him, which failed  Eastern Jewel then “found” a poisonous snake in his bed  Eastern Jewel “found” a bomb in a gift fruit basket, bombs “identified” as coming from enemy warlords  Crowds hired by Doihara protested the Pu-Yi dynasty, Doihara then sent the army to “fight them to the death”  Doihara hired thugs to attack Pu-Yi’s bodyguards, finally accepted and became a prisoner of the Japanese after he authorized their troops, tried and convicted for collaboration by Chinese after war  Eastern Jewel got fat and suffered from numerous venereal diseases, beheaded by Chinese after war  League of Nations asks Japan to leave Manchuria, Japan leaves the League in1933  Japan takes the rest of northern China by 1933  Mao and Chiang fight each other, did not work together until 1937 Henry Pu-Yi & Flag of Manchukuo

15 Japan broke Washington Naval Conference and began building a powerful navy, created 2 of the largest battleships in world history, Yamato and Musashi (a third was converted to a giant aircraft carrier, the Shinano) Above: Diagram of Yamato battle ship Below: Picture of Yamato battleship Above: Musashi Below: IJN Shinano aircraft carrier

16 Clash at Marco Polo Bridge: Fight between Japanese and Chinese troops on July 7, 1937 Japanese enter Chinese territory claiming to search for a “missing soldier” Chinese resisted and the Japanese army attacked and invaded the rest of China President Roosevelt calls for quarantine of Germany, Italy, and Japan The Marco Polo Bridge (Lugouqiao), a key access to Beijing The Double Seventh Incident (the 7th day of the 7th month) signaled the beginning of the Japanese all-out invasion of northern China Guardian lions decorate the Marco Polo Bridge Marco Polo Bridge

17 1 st : Marco Bridge; 2007 2 nd : On July 7, 1937, Japanese troops launched bombarded (Marco Polo Bridge) the Lugougiao Bridge 3 rd : Chinese National Revolutionary Army Troops at the Marco Polo Bridge in 1937 Damage from the Japanese shells on the wall of Wanping Fortress is marked with a memorial plaque now. The text on the stone drums below summarizes the history of the war that followed the incident

18 Above (left) Kanji symbols of Banzai (Ten thousand years) in front of Japan's national flag Above (right): Japanese aggressor cavalry troops passing through the Marco Polo Bridge Below (right): Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese navy celebrating at the Marco Polo Bridge by doing banzai cheer

19 Rape of Nanking, winter (1937- 38), authorized slaughter of civilians, rape, bayonet and grenade practice, set afire with gasoline Above: Japanese soldier beheads a prisoner at Nanking Below: The Quintessential Photo of Nanking a Wounded Child Who has Lost His Parents

20 Japanese soldiers at Work in Nanking Field of Bones Nanking Massacre: (Japanese Troops) and heads of beheaded victims

21 Iris Chang would never be the same after researching and writing the Rape of Nanking. Traumatized by what she had learned and burdened by the weight of what she had taken on, she killed herself on November 9th 2004. Memorial Site for Victims of 1937 Nanking Massacre

22 Panay Incident : Japanese dive bomber pilot sinks USS Panay December 12, 1937, ship was on the Yangtze River near Nanking to intimidate Japanese, 2 killed Japanese bombers and fighter planes bombed and strafed (attack by low-flying aircraft) the ship, sank it, machine gunned the survivors in the water Survivor’s of the Panay Incident Newspaper Headline the day after the bombing of the USS Panay

23 A Japanese ship followed and machine gunned the survivors near the shore Japanese troops marched along the shore apparently hoping to capture the survivors Japanese sailors boarded the ship just before it sank, perhaps in hopes of finding secret papers, equipment, or codes Attack was partially filmed by news crews, but FDR ordered the film censored to edit out Japanese pilots’ faces Japan claims it thought the ship was Chinese (even though it was clearly marked with two large U.S. flags) apologizes and pays $2 million damages, but awards pilot with a medal Japan not capable of completing conquest of China USS Panay

24 Japan began to regulate society more in 1937: (Censorship, rationing, police surveillance)  Kempeitai (Imperial Japanese Army Military Police), able to use forced confessions in court, used to make sure everyone was loyal to the war, ran prisoner of war camps, participated in human experiments  The Kempeitai also provided, “Comfort Women”, women from territories occupied by Japan forced into sex slavery by the Japanese (Used for keeping moral support high for Japanese soldiers during WW2) In 1938, Japan announces: Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere Japan plans to control resources in her Southeast Asian Empire Japanese illustration of the “Cooperation” of Asian countries in the Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere

25 U.S. does not use trade sanctions against Japan (Great Depression) until (1940-41) Embargo on war materials including oil, aviation gasoline, scrap iron, steel U.S. had begun preparing for war in the 1930’s, buildings aircraft carriers Pro-Axis German postcard Kingdom of Italy, Nazi Germany, and Empire of Japan Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (September 1940): military alliance between the three countries

26 1 st : Mussolini (Rome) 2 nd : Hitler (Berlin) 3 rd : Emperor Hirohito (Toyko) 1. Hideki Tojo, (pictured left with all the medals) was Minister of War, soldier, and became prime minister October 1941-July 19, 1944 (resigned 10 days after fall of Saipan) TOJO

27 Signing of the Tripartite Pact on September 27, 1940 in Berlin. Seated on the left starting with Saburo Kurusu (Empire of Japan), Galeazzo Ciano (Kingdom of Italy) and Adolf Hitler (German Reich slumped in chair).Tripartite Pact Saburo KurusuGaleazzo CianoAdolf Hitler Yosuke MatsuokaYosuke Matsuoka, Japan’s Foreign Minister visits Adolf Hitler in Berlin on March 1941Adolf HitlerBerlin

28 Mussolini, Hitler, and Hirohito "Grotesque Italian, German, and Japanese characters" artist unknown; possibly September 1940

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