Alien & Sedition Acts The Alien and Sedition Acts marked an attempt by Federalists to suppress opposition at home. These acts gave the President the power to arrest and deport any alien suspected of having "treasonable or secret leanings."
The Patriot Act, passed 45 days after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, gives the government the right to access personal information about American citizens that had previously been private, including FBI access to medical, library and student records. The act also allows the FBI to retrieve such information without the citizen’s knowledge of the search.
Election of 1800 Nasty politics (Federalist newspapers claimed that the election of Jefferson would cause the "teaching of "murder robbery, rape, adultery and incest".)Jefferson A tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr After 4 days of wrangling, the House chose Jefferson as President.
Federalist Era comes to an end Slowly declined after 1800 1804, the party was weakened after Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr Had helped shape the nation, most policies would remain in place.
As the first peaceful transition of political power between opposing parties in U.S. history, the election of 1800 had far- reaching significance.
Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President Deliberately tried to downplay his inauguration Was determined to make the government more democratic With his informal manner, showed that the President was an ordinary citizen Virtual Tour of Monticello, http://explorer.monticello.org/http://explorer.monticello.org/
Federalists fear the worst “The minority possess their equal rights, which equal laws must protect.”
Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist Feared Jefferson would bring revolutionary change to the U.S. Would he punish the Federalists for the Alien and Sedition Acts?
“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Tried to reconcile party differences Still felt the federal government was too powerful Reduced the power of the navy & army Cut the federal budget Kept the National Bank Let the Alien & Sedition Acts expire
Strengthening the Supreme Court Adams increased the number of judges in the Supreme Court before he quit office. Federalists judges John Marshall, Chief Justice, responsible for establishing the power of the Supreme Court as a check and balance
Chief Justice John Marshall Established the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review Marbury v. Madison
The Louisiana Purchase “Who should control the Mississippi?”
By 1800, almost 1 million Americans lived between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River Spain controlled New Orleans Pinckney Treaty – U.S. agreement with Spain to use New Orleans as a trading port Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France in 1800
The U.S. buys Louisiana from France Napoleon had problems, inspired by the French revolution, Haiti revolted Sold the land to the U.S. for $15 million In 1803, the United States doubled in size Toussaint L’Ouvreture
Lewis & Clark Expedition Jefferson asked his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, to head an expedition. He wanted a route to the Pacific Ocean mapped He wanted to learn all about the territory http://www.nationalgeographic.com/west/
(1804–1806) was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the U.S. accompanied by a 15- yr-old Shoshone Indian woman, Sacagawea, the wife of a French- Canadian fur trader
Head of a vulture "... Shannon an[d] Labiesh brought in to us today a Buzzard or Vulture of the Columbia which they wounded and taken alive. I believe this to be the largest Bird of North America. it was not it good order and yet it wayed 25 lbs.” drawn by Clark, Monday, February 16th, 1806
Zebulon Pike 1805-1807, explored the Upper Mississippi River, the Arkansas River, and present day Colorado & New Mexico Was caught by the Spanish, who took all of his maps and records He managed to hide one in the barrel of his gun…
New Threats from Overseas After the revolution, American overseas trade grew rapidly.
“The captain said if we would come up, he would give us some drink…as soon as we got on the quarter deck they all surrounded us and the second mate clapped a pistol to my breast. ‘If you move an inch, I will blow your brains out.’” - from the journal of Jacob Nagle, American sailor, 1775-1841
Trading around the world Yankee traders were always on the lookout for new goods and markets Traders faced great risks from pirates in the Mediterranean Sea, so much that the U.S. paid annual tribute to the Barbary States so they wouldn’t attack.
The Barbary Coast showing main piratical sovereign states of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Barbary Pirates The Barbary pirates preyed in packs and wanted everyone to see and know what they did. They openly operated out of major seaports like Tunis and Algiers. The Ottoman Empire backed the Barbary corsairs and incorporated them into its navy.
Did you know? After the Revolutionary War, we lost Britain’s protection on the high seas tribute and ransomsThe U.S. spent approximately 1/5 of its annual budget on tribute and ransoms to Barbary states (approx. $2 million) Conflict with Barbary pirates helped develop the tradition of American Marines & Navy
During the Barbary Wars, converted a Tripolitanian boat, called it Intrepid, entered the fortified harbor of Tripoli, went alongside and boarded the previously captured American frigate Philadelphia, blew it up at the pier while escaping without a major casualty. After the War of 1812 his Mediterranean Squadron extracted a treaty of peace with the Dey of Algiers that guaranteed ship passage without payment of tribute. Captain Stephen Decatur, Jr. 1798-1820 www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/lyrics/marine.htm
Burning the U.S. frigate Philadelphia (had 36 cannons on board)
Jefferson tries an Embargo Like Washington and Adams, Jefferson wanted to avoid war. First tried a total embargo on foreign trade (Embargo Act, 1807) Then passed the milder embargo just on trade with Britain and France (Non-intercourse Act, 1809)
Conflict with Native Americans Indians forced to sell Ohio territory Tecumseh and the Prophet organized a confederation Battle of Tippecanoe – Harrison defeats Tecumseh and the Prophet U.S. makes a deal with France, starts trading with them but NOT Britain.
William Henry Harrison “[Tecumseh] is one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established order of things.” Tecumseh “The whites have driven us from the great salt water, forced us over the mountains…The way, the only way to check this evil is for all red men to unite in claiming equal right in the land.”
Madison becomes 4 th President War Hawks wanted war with Britain Felt it would give U.S. a chance to seize Florida from Spain Would bring lasting safety to settlers in the west. War declared in 1812
Timeline American attempts to invade Canada fail British burn Washington Battle of New Orleans (Andrew Jackson makes a name for himself) New Englanders feared that they would lose power because of the war
Hartford Convention New Englanders threatened to leave the Union With the war over, the protest was meaningless
Treaty of Ghent Officially ended the war “Nothing was adjusted, nothing was settled” No discussion about impressment or neutrality “The people are now more American. They feel and act more as a nation.”
The Treaty of Ghent marked the end of the last armed conflict between Britain and the United States. Never again did these two nations war with each other.