Presentation on theme: "Jeffersonian Democracy. A. Revolution of 1800 1.Election a.Jefferson popular vote winner b.Technicality gave Burr and Jefferson some # of electoral votes."— Presentation transcript:
A. Revolution of 1800 1.Election a.Jefferson popular vote winner b.Technicality gave Burr and Jefferson some # of electoral votes. c.Burr did not defer, election went to House d.Finally went to TJ when some Feds feared Burr Presidency and abstained. e.TJ defeats John Adams and Burr – Burr becomes VP. 2.Significance a.Jefferson called it a “revolution” b.Return to the spirit of 1776 and a truly republican gov’t. c.Revolutionary in that in that there was a peaceful transfer of power. d.John Adams last Federalist President.
B. The Inconsistent Jefferson 1.Two Jeffersons a.Bookish intellectual philosopher b.The practical politician i.Did not boot Federalist public servants – little patronage for loyal Jeffersonians ii.Alien and Sedition Acts expired on their own. iii.Did not do away with funding at par and assuming state debts. iv.Kept Bank of US (would recharter it in 1816) v.Did not repeal protective tariff (would raise it later) vi.DID repeal the whiskey excise and substantially reduced debt however.
C. The Judiciary and John Marshall 1.Judiciary Act of 1801 a.Last ditch effort by Federalists to leave mark b.Created 16 new judgeships that could be filled by outgoing Adams. i.3 consider “midnight” judges with commissions being written at 9 pm of Adams’ last day in office. ii.John Marshall appointed Chief Justice by Adams at end of term Jefferson’s cousin Served 34 years on Supreme Court Passed on Federalist legacy long after the Federalist party died out. Shaped the American legal tradition more profoundly than any other figure in US history.
2.Marbury v. Madison (1803) a.“midnight” judge Wm Marbury never received commission. b.New Secretary of State James Madison shelved it on first day in office (never delivered the night before). c.Marshall decision i.Denied Marbury’s appeal BUT because, he claimed, that the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed Supreme Court authority to issue writs of mandamus was unconstitutional. ii.Denied himself one Federalist judge, but dramatically increased the power of the Supreme Court at the same time iii.Power to review laws of Congress and determine their constitutionality now squarely in the hands of the S.C. = JUDICIAL REVIEW.
D. Early Foreign Policy 1.Distrusted large standing armies 2.Pirates on Barbary Coast forced TJ to act a.Paid $60,000 in ransom money and sent US Marines to Tripoli to protect Us shipping b.Developed a navy of 200 small boats known as “jeffs” or the “mosquito fleet” – one mounted gun. c.Worried about strong naval or military build-up would drag US into foreign conflicts.
E. Louisiana Purchase (1803) 1.Napoleon Bonaparte convinced Spain to cede Louisiana Territory to France 2.TJ feared French control of Mississippi and New Orleans a.Sent Monroe and Livingston to Paris to offer $10 million for New Orleans and as much land east of it as possible b.TJ knew that if this failed, he would have to ally with GB for protection. 3.Napoleon decides to sell ALL of Louisiana Territory for $15 million a.Couldn’t control sugar island of Santo Domingo – slave revolt led by Touissant L’Ouverture. b.No longer needed Louisiana to be food source for island. c.Feared turning over Louisiana to GB as a spoil of war d.Hoped strengthened US would thwart British power in North America.
4.Jefferson Conflicted a.Strict construction of Constitution says nothing about land purchases by President. b.Saw this land grab as solidifying democratic experiment. c.Avoided war with France and alliance with GB. d.Removed last vestige of Old Europe from North America. e.Feared Napoleon would rescind offer – submitted treaties to Senate knowing purchase was unconstitutional. i.Congress and public highly supportive ii.828,000 sq. mi at $.03/acre
5.Lewis and Clark - 1804 a.TJ sent his personal secretary Meriweather Lewis and army officer Wm Clark to explore what they had purchased b.Aided by Shoshoni woman Sacajawea c.2.5 year trek from St. Louis, through Rockies and to Oregon territory. d.Made many scientific observations, maps and contact with many native tribes.
F. Second Term Showdown(s) 1.Easily won re-election in 1804. 2.Napoleon declares war on GB in 1803 a.Brits win Battle of Trafalgar – dominate on sea. b.Napoleon wins Battle of Austerlitz – dominates on land. c.US can’t trade with either without facing repercussions from the other. 3.The Chesapeake Incident – 1807. a.Background i.GB heavily in the practice of impressing US sailors. ii.6,000 US sailors stolen from 1808-1811. b.Showdown i.GB warship boarded US frigate 10 mi off coast of VA. ii.GB Captain demanded 4 deserters. iii.When US Captain refused, GB Cpt. Ordered Chesapeake to be fired upon at close range – killed 3. iv.US public outraged – TJ could have had war if he wanted it – but US not ready.
4.Embargo of 1807 a.US food in high demand by both belligerents b.TJ saw economic sanctions as a way to get France and GB to respect US rights c.Congress passing Embargo Act of 1807 i.Forbade all US exports – “Peaceful Coercion” ii.Backfired for TJ Hurt New England shipping and southern farmers more than GB and France Major black market developed. Revived almost dead Federalist Party – New England talked of secession. Actually helped New England industrialize – something that TJ always opposed. iii.Embargo repealed 1809 (3 days before TJ left office) iv.Replaced by Non-Intercourse Act – opened up trade with all nations EXCEPT GB and France.
G. James Madison and the War of 1812 1.Macon’s Bill #2 1.Replaced Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 2.Opened up trade with ALL nations but… 3.If GB or France lifted restrictions on trade with US, US would restore embargo on other nation. 4.Napoleon took bait 1.France said they would lift restrictions if GB did the same. 2.GB did not, and US restored embargo against her 3. War was bound to come… 4.And it did
2.“War Hawks” c.Newly elected Congressmen from South and West d.Clamored for “a new war against an old enemy” e.Angered at British impressment of US sailors f.Furious over British Canada supplying weapons to frontier natives. g.Tecumseh and the Prophet c.Shawnee Brothers who tried to create eastern Miss confederacy to stem westward advance of settlers. d.A band led by Prophet defeated and killed by Indiana governor Wm Henry Harrison and his army at Tippecanoe. e.Tecumseh allied with British, but died at Battle of Thames in 1813.
3.“Mr. Madison’s War” a.Invasion of Canada i.Would have been victorious if concentrated on one large city like Montreal ii.Instead, launched 3-prong attack on Detroit, Niagara and Lake Champlain. iii.All were repulsed iv.Tried again in 1813, but that failed too b.Great Lakes i.More success on sea ii.USS Constitution “Old Ironsides” iii.Commodore Oliver Perry def. GB on Lake Erie and allows for Harrison’s troops to overtake Brits at Battle of the Thames in 1813
c. On the Defensive i.New York i.Brits attack New York through Lake Champlain ii.Thomas Macdonough pulled off 11 th hour victory iii.Critical win as it staved off British invasion ii.Washington D.C. i.Brits attack and burn Capitol and White House ii.Launch attack on Ft. Henry in Baltimore but are repulsed. iii.Francis Scott Key pens “Star Spangled Banner”
iii.New Orleans Brits also attack New Orleans Andrew Jackson’s troops entrenched there Kill 2,000 (of 8,000) Brits in half hour – only 70 US casualties. Ironically, 2 weeks AFTER peace treaty signed.
4.Treaty of Ghent a.Signed Christmas Eve 1814 b.Essentially an armistice c.All conquered territory restore to original owner. d.No mention of original grievances for which the war was fought: impressment, Indian menace, trade restrictions
H. Death of the Federalists 1.New England a.Home of the Federalists b.Prospered during war due to illicit trade with Brits c.Strongly against war d.Small minority suggested secession 2.Hartford Convention a.26 men from MA, CT, RI, NH and VT met secretly in Hartford, CT to discuss their grievances i.2/3rds vote for embargo, new states or war ii.Single term Prez and no two consecutive Presidents from same state. iii.Abolition of 3/5 th clause b.Sent 3 of men to D.C. to submit their complaints c.Victorious news from New Orleans and Ghent just in d.Federalists looked petty and treasonous e.Never run a candidate again.
I. War of 1812 Legacy 1.Small compared to Napoleon in Europe, but large consequences for US 2.US stood up for its rights as a sovereign nation a.New respect earned for fighting capability. b.Navy made a name for itself – US taken more seriously diplomatically as a result. c.War heroes emerged in Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison. 3.Federalist Party largest casualty – sectionalism melted somewhat. 4.Natives forced to relinquish large tracts of land – again. 5.Manufacturing prospered due to GB blockade and previous emabargo – less dependent on Europe for goods. 6.Surge in US NATIONALISM – did not fight as one nation, but came out as one.
J. Nationalism 1.Def. - Spirit of national consciousness or national oneness. 2.American capable of defending herself 3.Death of Federalists- temporarily reduced sectionalism and states’ rights sentiment. 4.Decline of economic and political dependence on Europe – turned focus westward 5.Nationalism demonstrated itself in Literature, art and architecture
a.Literature i.Romantic period (1820-1860) marked first great literary generation of America. ii.Protagonists haunted, alienated, larger than life, left to the make their own way. James Fenimore Cooper The Pioneers Last of the Mohicans Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter The House of the Seven Gables Herman Melville Moby Dick Edgar Poe
iii.Poetry Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Paul Revere’s Ride The Song of Hiawatha Ralph Waldo Emerson The Transcendentalist The Young American John Greenleaf Whittier Legends of New England in Prose and Verse Oliver Wendell Holmes Old Ironsides The Last Leaf
b.Art i.Reflected 19 th century themes of discovery, exploration and settlement. ii.Focused on aethestics of the sublime and landscapes iii.Hudson River School i.Thomas ColeThomas Cole ii.Albert BierstadtAlbert Bierstadt iv.Rocky Mountain School i.Thomas MoranThomas Moran
c.Architecture i.Moved away from Georgian style that emulated GBish architecture (17 th c) towards more Neo- classical style. ii.Copied Ancient Greeks and Romans in style of government and style of architecture Georgian Neo-Classical/Greek Revival
Georgian Neo-Classical/Greek Revival
Georgian Neo-Classical/Greek Revival
Georgian Neo-Classical/Greek Revival
K. The “Era of Good Feelings” (1816-1824) 1.Henry Clay’s “American System”-Bank, Tariffs, Internal Improvements a.Second Bank of US i.First BUS Expired 1811 ii.Lack of Bank during War of 1812 hurt economy iii.2 nd Bank modeled after first but with 3.5X more capital. iv.Jeffersonians supported 2 nd bank, but Feds denounced it as unconstitutional(!)
b.Tariff of 1816 i.Purpose: protect US manufacturing from British competition. ii.First protective tariff in US history. iii.20-25% duties on imports iv.Created sectional tension between 3 regions North – opposed – feared it would damage shipping indutry – Rep. by Daniel Webster (MA) South – Originally supported, then opposed fearing it enriched New England at expense of South – Rep. by John C. Calhoun (SC) West – In favor as it would fund needed roads and canals linking west to east – Rep by Henry Clay (KY)
c.Internal Improvements i.Congress passed Calhoun’s Bonus Bill of 1817 but Presidents Madison and Monroe both vetoed it Called for federal funding for internal improvements (roads/canals) Jeffersonians said it was a states rights issue and therefore, unconstitutional New Englanders feared it would drain population to the West.
L. James Monroe 1.Continuation of “Virginian Dynasty” (4 th ) 2.Presidency dubbed the “Era of Good Feelings” a.Death of Federalists i.Jeffersonians adopted many Federalist policies (financial plan, expansion, loose construction) ii.Federalists originally nationalist, but now opposed to Republican nationalism. iii.Feds became strict constructionists esp. re: internal improvements.
3.“Era of Good Feelings” somewhat a misnomer a.Democratic Republican did enjoy 1 party rule, but factions split party b.Emerging sectionalism (east, west and south) c.Tariff division (north and south opposed; west in favor) d.BUS (west and south opposed; east in favor) e.Sale of public lands (east opposed; west and south in favor) f.Panic of 1819 – west vs. eastern bankers g.Missouri Compromise intensified sectionalism
4.Panic of 1819 a.First economic depression since 1790s b.Would recur every 20 + years (1837, 1857, 1873, 1893, 1907, 1929) c.Causes i.Overspeculation on frontier lands by banks (esp BUS) ii.Inflation from War of 1812 iii.Negative balance of trade with GB – drained US of gold and silver iv.BUS forced “wildcat” western banks to foreclose on western farms BUS started demanding payment in coin, not paper State banks then required loans paid back in specie (coin) Many farmers didn’t have specie so they lost their farms
d.Results i.Western farmers viewed bank as evil financial monster. ii.Hard hit poor looking for more responsive gov’t (beginnings of Jacksonian democracy) iii.Widespread sentiment to end practice of imprisoning debtors.
5.Westward Expansion a.Nine new western states joined union from 1791-1819 i.Alternated between slave and free ii.Maintaining sectional balance in Congress supreme goal. iii.Weak in population and influence b.Reasons for westward expansion i.Cheap land in Ohio attracted 1000s of Euro immigrants. ii.Land exhaustion of tobacco states drove ppl west. iii.Embargo drove ppl west. iv.Land speculation – small down payment with installments. v.Defeat of western natives cleared land for sale i.Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) ii.Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) vi.Transportation Revolution i.Cumberland Road begun in 1811 – linked MD to IL ii.Steamboat in 1811 made upstream travel possible. iii.Canal Era of 1820-1850 allowed for increased east-west trade
6.Missouri Compromise a.MO asked to enter union in 1819 b.James Tallmadge introduced amendment on MO statehood i.No more slaves could be brought to MO. ii.Gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there. c.South viewed this as serious threat to sectional balance. i.Senate still 11 slave and 11 free ii.Tallmadge Amendment might set precedent for future states d.Senate refused to pass the amendment John Tallmadge
e.Compromise i.Henry Clay crafted ii.MO to be admitted as slave state; ME to be admitted as free iii.Kept sectional balance at 12- 12 in Senate for next 15 years. iv.Future slavery prohibited north of 36’30’’ (so. Border of MO) v.Both sides supported vi.Legacy Lasted 34 years until Kansas- Nebraska Act in 1854 Slavery now the dominant issue in US politics. Serious setback to national unity South began to develop a sectional nationalism all its own. South looked to the west to form alliance.
7.Monroe’s Foreign Policy i.Rush-Bagot Treaty(1817) US and Canada agree to disarmament on Great Lakes ii.Treaty of 1818 Negotiated by Sec of State John Quincy Adams Fixed US-Canadian border at 49 th parallel to Rocky Mts. By 1870, share longest unfortified boundary in the world – 5,500 mi.
iii.Adams-Onis Treaty (Florida Purchase Treaty) of 1819 Indians and runaway slaves launching attacks across Florida-US border Monroe ordered Jackson to attack/pursue marauders Jackson swept through Florida in First Seminole War 1816-18 Ultimatum offered to Spain: control your people of cede Florida to US Spain not equipped to do this (revolutions in S. America) so decided to negotiate Spain ceded Florida and all claims to Oregon US abandoned claims to Texas
8.Monroe Doctrine a.Europe i.European monarchies concerned with revolutions in Latin America. ii.Saw democracy as a threat to absolute monarchy iii.Sought to restore newly independent Latin American countries to Spanish rule b.Monroe Doctrine i.Penned by Sec of State John Q. Adams ii.Warned Europe that they could keep existed colonies, but gain no new ones. iii.Leave independent republics, US and western hemisphere alone. iv.Maintained GW’s tradition of avoiding “entangling alliances”. v.Became cornerstone of US foreign policy thorughout 19 th and early 20 th century. vi.JQ Adams da man! Treaty of 1818, Adams-Onis and now this?