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REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION Chapter 8

2 Republican Identities in a New Republic An age of rapid population growth An age of rapid population growth –7.2 million in 1810; two million more than 1800 –20% black slaves –children under 16 the largest single group Strong regional identities Strong regional identities Early secession movements threaten national unity Early secession movements threaten national unity

3 North America in 1800

4 Westward the Course of Empire Intense migration to West after 1790 Intense migration to West after 1790 New States New States – Kentucky – Tennessee – Ohio Western regional culture rootless, optimistic Western regional culture rootless, optimistic

5 Native American Resistance Western settlers compete for Indian land Western settlers compete for Indian land Indians resist Indians resist – Tecumseh leads Shawnees, defeated – Creeks defeated Settlers reject Indian-White coexistence Settlers reject Indian-White coexistence

6 Commercial Life in the Cities Economy based on agriculture and trade Economy based on agriculture and trade American shipping prospers American shipping prospers Cities associated with international trade, otherwise marginal role in national life Cities associated with international trade, otherwise marginal role in national life Industrialization and mechanization just beginning to frighten skilled craftsmen Industrialization and mechanization just beginning to frighten skilled craftsmen

7 I. The Political Crisis of the 1790s “Revolution of 1800” “Revolution of 1800” 1. The Election of 1800

8 The Jeffersonian Revolution Well over 6 feet tall Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker. Not a good public speaker. One of the greatest writers among U.S. Pres. One of the greatest writers among U.S. Pres. A renaissance man A renaissance man Incredibly well-read in science and philosophy Incredibly well-read in science and philosophy Cont. Congress; Cont. Congress; assemblyman; assemblyman; Gov. of Virginia.; Gov. of Virginia.; Author of Dec. of Independence; Author of Dec. of Independence; Min. to France; Min. to France; Sec. of State; Sec. of State; Vice Pres. Vice Pres.

9 Election of 1800 Adams v. Jefferson again. Close again. Adams v. Jefferson again. Close again. Aaron Burr runs as Dem.-Rep. Vice President Aaron Burr runs as Dem.-Rep. Vice President Jefferson wins this time, 73 to 65. Jefferson wins this time, 73 to 65. Why do Federalists lose support? Why do Federalists lose support? Election is very personal (ie “dirty”) Election is very personal (ie “dirty”) New York is the key swing state. NY delivered to Jefferson by Aaron Burr through his connections in the state. New York is the key swing state. NY delivered to Jefferson by Aaron Burr through his connections in the state. Jefferson strongest in west and south where white male farmers (yeomen) dominated. Jefferson strongest in west and south where white male farmers (yeomen) dominated.

10 FEDERALIST ATTACKS GET PERSONAL This anti-Jefferson cartoon highlights the rumors that the Virginia politician kept a black mistress. In the late 19 th century, DNA evidence that Jefferson did indeed father children with Sally Hemmings, his slave and also his wife’s half-sister.

11 Election of 1800

12 Aaron Burr problem. Aaron Burr problem. Vice Presidential election and electoral college before the 12 th Amendment Vice Presidential election and electoral college before the 12 th Amendment Tie threw election into House Tie threw election into House Burr’s reaction Burr’s reaction Why did Hamilton help Jefferson? Why did Hamilton help Jefferson?.

13 THE ELECTION OF 1800 John Adams (left) and Thomas Jefferson (right) squared off for the presidency for a second time in It was the first and only instance in American history when a sitting President and Vice President ran against each other.

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17 Revolution of 1800  Election of 1800 arguably the most significant in US History. Why?

18 The Federalist Finale  Adams was the last Federalist president.  Federalist as halfway house between European past and American present.  Why didn’t Federalists appeal to more voters?  Stayed a party for another 20 years, but never won the presidency. Federalists, like the dinosaurs, couldn’t adapt and so became extinct

19 Jefferson’s Political Principles  Themes of inaugural  Jefferson’s political principles Rejected the idea of a political elite. Rejected the idea of a political elite. Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer. Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer. Universal suffrage without regard to property ownership. Universal suffrage without regard to property ownership. Small government—governs best when it governs least. Small government—governs best when it governs least. Strict construction of the Constitution. Strict construction of the Constitution.

20 Jeffersonian Restraint  Jefferson’s first priority was to undue abuses by the Federalists. Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act Pushed a new naturalization law (1802) that reduced residence requirement back to five years. Pushed a new naturalization law (1802) that reduced residence requirement back to five years. Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue. Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue. reduced the national debt reduced the national debt  What does he do to the core of Hamilton’s financial program.

21 Jefferson as President Jefferson as President Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s contradictions Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s contradictions Despises ceremonies and formality Despises ceremonies and formality Dedicated to intellectual pursuits Dedicated to intellectual pursuits A politician to the core A politician to the core Success depends on cooperation with Congress Success depends on cooperation with Congress

22 Jeffersonian Reforms Priority to cutting federal debt, taxes Priority to cutting federal debt, taxes Federal expenses trimmed by cutting military Federal expenses trimmed by cutting military Reduction of the army removes threat to Republican government Reduction of the army removes threat to Republican government Competent bureaucrats retained regardless of party Competent bureaucrats retained regardless of party Federalists retire from public life Federalists retire from public life Ambitious Federalists become Republicans Ambitious Federalists become Republicans

23 II. The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution The Jeffersonian Presidency 1. Policies 2. Marbury v. Madison Jefferson and the West 1. The Louisiana Purchase 2. Secessionist Schemes 3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandan and Sioux

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25 The Louisiana Purchase France buys Louisiana from Spain France buys Louisiana from Spain Jefferson sends a mission to France to buy New Orleans Jefferson sends a mission to France to buy New Orleans Napoleon offers to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million Napoleon offers to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million Constitution vague on Congressional authority to purchase Constitution vague on Congressional authority to purchase Purchase departs from Republican principle of strict separation Purchase departs from Republican principle of strict separation

26 The Louisiana Purchase (2) Louisiana inhabitants French & Spanish Louisiana inhabitants French & Spanish Jefferson denies them self-rule Jefferson denies them self-rule Louisiana governed from Washington Louisiana governed from Washington Another Jeffersonian departure from Republicanism Another Jeffersonian departure from Republicanism

27 The Lewis and Clark Expedition Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805 Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805 Report on Louisiana’s economic promise confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase Report on Louisiana’s economic promise confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase

28 The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and Clark

29 II. The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution A. The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance 1. Conflict over Land Rights 2. Assimilation Rejected

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31 II. The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution B. Migration and the Changing Farm Economy 1. Southern Migrants 2. Exodus from New England 3. Innovation on Eastern Farms

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34 Jefferson Turns Warrior Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy. Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy. North African Barbary Pirates North African Barbary Pirates “Shores of Tripoli” “Shores of Tripoli” Mosquito fleet Mosquito fleet

35 Conflict With the Barbary States North African states demand tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean North African states demand tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” U.S. cannot defeat the Barbary States U.S. cannot defeat the Barbary States Action induces respect for U.S. rights Action induces respect for U.S. rights

36 The Barbary States

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38 Jefferson’s Critics Dispute over federal court system Dispute over federal court system Conflicts between Republicans Conflicts between Republicans Sectional dispute over the slave trade Sectional dispute over the slave trade

39 Judiciary Act off 1801 Last ditch effort to hold power Last ditch effort to hold power “midnight judges”. “midnight judges”. Chief Justice John Marshall Chief Justice John Marshall –Shaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure. –Served as Chief Justice for 34 years

40 Attack on the Judges: Judiciary Act Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists Jeffersonians seek to repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courts Jeffersonians seek to repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courts Federalists charge violation of judges’ Constitutional right of tenure Federalists charge violation of judges’ Constitutional right of tenure

41 Marbury v Madison Marshall’s first and one of his most important legacies Marshall’s first and one of his most important legacies Basic Facts Basic Facts “Writ of Mandamus” “Writ of Mandamus” Ruling Ruling –Judicial Review –Consequences

42 Attack on the Judges: Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison (1803) rules Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Marbury v. Madison (1803) rules Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Federalist Marbury denied his judgeship Federalist Marbury denied his judgeship Republicans claim victory Republicans claim victory Chief Justice John Marshall ensures Federalist influence through judicial review Chief Justice John Marshall ensures Federalist influence through judicial review

43 Attack on the Judges: Impeachments Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanity Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanity Republicans begin fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary Republicans begin fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary Jefferson exacerbates fears by seeking to impeach Federalist Samuel Chase Jefferson exacerbates fears by seeking to impeach Federalist Samuel Chase Republican Senate refuses to convict Republican Senate refuses to convict

44 Politics of Desperation: “Tertium Quids” "Tertium Quids" claim pure Republicanism "Tertium Quids" claim pure Republicanism Attack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for pragmatism Attack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for pragmatism

45 Politics of Desperation: The Yazoo Controversy Yazoo controversy Yazoo controversy – fraudulent land case in Georgia – Jefferson attempts to settle by providing land to innocent parties – Quids complain settlement condones fraud Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – Marshall court upholds Jefferson’s settlement – court may nullify unconstitutional state laws

46 Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr Vice-President Aaron Burr breaks with Jefferson Vice-President Aaron Burr breaks with Jefferson Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governor’s race Burr seeks Federalist support in 1804 New York governor’s race Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s efforts Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s efforts Burr kills Hamilton in a duel Burr kills Hamilton in a duel

47 Hamilton-Burr Duel Federalist attitude toward Louisiana Purchase Federalist attitude toward Louisiana Purchase Aaron Burr Plot for the secession of New England Aaron Burr Plot for the secession of New England Hamilton-Burr duel in Hamilton-Burr duel in –Reason for Duel? Burr killed Hamilton Burr killed Hamilton Burr further discredited in SW treason plot agst U.S. Burr further discredited in SW treason plot agst U.S.

48 The Burr Conspiracy Burr flees West after Hamilton duel Burr flees West after Hamilton duel Schemes to invade Spanish territory Schemes to invade Spanish territory Burr arrested, tried for treason Burr arrested, tried for treason John Marshall acquits on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence John Marshall acquits on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence Precedent makes it difficult for presidents to use charge of treason as a political tool Precedent makes it difficult for presidents to use charge of treason as a political tool

49 The Slave Trade Congress prohibits slave trade after 1808 Congress prohibits slave trade after 1808 Northern Republicans call for emancipation of any black smuggled into the U.S. Northern Republicans call for emancipation of any black smuggled into the U.S. Southern Republicans win passage of law to hand such persons over to state authorities Southern Republicans win passage of law to hand such persons over to state authorities

50 Embarrassments Overseas England and France resume war England and France resume war American ships subject to seizure American ships subject to seizure – by England through “Orders in Council" – by Napoleon through Berlin, Milan Decrees Jefferson refuses war to preserve financial reform Jefferson refuses war to preserve financial reform Embargo--Jefferson’s alternative to war Embargo--Jefferson’s alternative to war

51 America: A Greedy Neutral? Jefferson reelected in 1804 in a landslide. (162-14), Jefferson reelected in 1804 in a landslide. (162-14), In his second term forced to deal with the mess in Europe and to try to find a way to stay neutral. In his second term forced to deal with the mess in Europe and to try to find a way to stay neutral. Napoleon reignites war in Europe. Brits oppose. Napoleon reignites war in Europe. Brits oppose. By 1806 France supreme on Land, Brits supreme on seas. Stalemate (“Shark v. Tiger”). By 1806 France supreme on Land, Brits supreme on seas. Stalemate (“Shark v. Tiger”). At first, US shippers get rich trading to both sides. At first, US shippers get rich trading to both sides.

52 America: A Neutral? Power? British Orders in Council in 1806 British Orders in Council in 1806 Napoleon’s response? Napoleon’s response? Why does US see this as violation of its rights? Why does US see this as violation of its rights? England impresses over 6000 US sailors between England impresses over 6000 US sailors between England refused to stop. England refused to stop.

53 HMS Leopard v. US Chesapeake 1807

54 Jefferson’s Backfiring Embargo National Outrage and Honor required US to do something National Outrage and Honor required US to do something Pros and cons of US options. Pros and cons of US options. Embargo Act (1807) Embargo Act (1807) –Assumed this would quickly bring England and France around.

55 Embargo Most people HATED it. Why?. Most people HATED it. Why?. –New England Federalist particularly mad. –What did they argue?. Consequences: Consequences: –Three times more costly than war would have been. –Ultimately did help New England factories. Fostered American industry. Fostered American industry. –Ruined U.S. Shipping (merchant marine)

56 Federalist Cartoon?

57 Non-Intercourse Act March 1809, just before Jefferson left office, Congress repealed the embargo and substituted the Non- Intercourse Act March 1809, just before Jefferson left office, Congress repealed the embargo and substituted the Non- Intercourse Act Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812 Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812

58 Embargo Divides the Nation Congress prohibits U.S. ships from leaving port Congress prohibits U.S. ships from leaving port Purpose: to win English, French respect for American rights Purpose: to win English, French respect for American rights Embargo unpopular at home Embargo unpopular at home – detailed government oversight of commerce – army suppresses smuggling – New England economy damaged

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60 James Madison Became 4th President in Became 4th President in , 100 lb., weak voice. 5-4, 100 lb., weak voice. Very distinguished career: Very distinguished career: –Cont. Congress, Congressman, Const. Convention, Sec. of State. Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions; Madison- not a strong leader. Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions; Madison- not a strong leader. Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess. Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess.

61 Madison: Dupe Of Napoleon Macon’s Bill No. 2 Macon’s Bill No. 2 –Disingenuous about trade? Napoleon tricks Madison into believing France would comply. Sets US on course antagonistic to England. Napoleon tricks Madison into believing France would comply. Sets US on course antagonistic to England. “War Hawks” “War Hawks” War Hawks pushing for War against England. War Hawks pushing for War against England. –Why? –Henry Clay; John C. Calhoun

62 A New Administration Goes to War James Madison elected President James Madison elected President Embargo repealed in favor of Non- Intercourse Act Embargo repealed in favor of Non- Intercourse Act – U.S. will resume trade with England and France on promise to cease seizure of U.S. vessels

63 A New Administration Goes to War (2) Madison reopens English trade on unconfirmed promise of British minister Madison reopens English trade on unconfirmed promise of British minister English reject agreement, seize U.S. ships that opened trade with England English reject agreement, seize U.S. ships that opened trade with England

64 “War Hawks” Henry Clay [KY] John C. Calhoun [SC]

65 A New Administration Goes to War (3) Macon’s Bill Number Two replaces the Non-Intercourse Act Macon’s Bill Number Two replaces the Non-Intercourse Act Trade with both England and France reestablished Trade with both England and France reestablished First nation to respect American rights wins halt of U.S. trade with the other First nation to respect American rights wins halt of U.S. trade with the other Napoleon promises to observe U.S. rights but reneges when trade reopened Napoleon promises to observe U.S. rights but reneges when trade reopened

66 War of 1812 June 1812 militant War Hawks get a declaration of war from Congress, June 1812 militant War Hawks get a declaration of war from Congress, –very narrow vote, signaling a dangerous division in the country Federalists strongly opposed Federalists strongly opposed Dubbed it “Mr. Madison’s War” Dubbed it “Mr. Madison’s War”

67 Fumbling Toward Conflict Tecumseh’s Western campaign seen as supported by British Tecumseh’s Western campaign seen as supported by British Congressional War Hawks demand war on England to preserve American honor Congressional War Hawks demand war on England to preserve American honor June 1, 1812, Madison sends Congress a declaration of war June 1, 1812, Madison sends Congress a declaration of war War aims vague War aims vague

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69 III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics C. The Federalist Legacy 1. Marshall’s Federalist Law 2. Asserting National Supremacy 3. Upholding Vested Property Rights 4. The Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams 5. Monroe Doctrine 5. Monroe Doctrine

70 The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics A. Conflict in the Atlantic and the West 1. The Embargo of Western War Hawks B. The War of Federalists Oppose the War 2. The War’s End

71 Battling Indians in the West War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West. War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West. –Kentucky Problem Tecumseh Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskawatawa). and the Prophet (Tenskawatawa). Shawnee Brothers Shawnee Brothers –Began a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi. –Attacked Settlers on “their” land.

72 Indian Battles Nov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe, Indiana Nov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe, Indiana 1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama) 1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama) –Significance?

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75 The Strange War of 1812: Early Course Americans unprepared for war Americans unprepared for war – Congress refuses to raise wartime taxes – New England refuses to support war effort – United States Army small – state militias inadequate U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in Battle of Put-In Bay U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in Battle of Put-In Bay

76 Strange War of 1812: The War’s Conclusion three-pronged English attack three-pronged English attack –campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain –campaign in the Chesapeake results in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore –campaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815 Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814 Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814

77 The War of 1812

78 Hartford Convention: The Demise of the Federalists Federalists convene December, 1814 Federalists convene December, 1814 Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West Treaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans makes Convention appear disloyal Treaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans makes Convention appear disloyal Federalist party never recovers Federalist party never recovers

79 Treaty of Ghent Ends the War Most problems left unaddressed Most problems left unaddressed Senate unanimously ratifies Treaty of Ghent Senate unanimously ratifies Treaty of Ghent Americans claim success in a "second war of independence" Americans claim success in a "second war of independence"

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81 Republican Legacy Founders begin to pass away in 1820s Founders begin to pass away in 1820s Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die July 4, 1826 Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die July 4, 1826 James Madison dies in 1836 James Madison dies in 1836 – despairs that Declaration’s principles not yet extended to African Americans

82 Post War of 1812 Nationalism “The Era of Good (&Bad) Feelings?”

83 Monroe’s Presidency : Era of Good Feelings Elections of 1816 and 1820 Elections of 1816 and 1820 One Party Politics One Party Politics

84 Henry Clay’s American System National Bank National Bank Protective Tariff Protective Tariff Federal Internal Improvements (Transportation) Federal Internal Improvements (Transportation)

85 Second Bank of the United States (2 nd BUS)

86 The Panic of 1819 Origins of the Panic of 1819 Origins of the Panic of 1819 –Drop in American foodstuff exports –Easy credit and speculative boom in the U.S. Second Bank of the United States Second Bank of the United States –Langdon Cheves Nationwide collapse in the economy Nationwide collapse in the economy Rise in unemployment Rise in unemployment Resentment against the Bank of the United States Resentment against the Bank of the United States


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