Timeframe: About 2600 B.C. to about 1200 A.D. Main Idea: Early people survived by using land and resources in Latin America
Central America has the most active volcanoes in all of the Americas. Andes Mountains: western coast of South America formed when two plates collided and pushed a tall ridge of earth up The Amazon River is one of the longest rivers in the world, running out of the Andes Mountains and into the Atlantic Ocean. The Eastern Highlands in South America consist of rocky plateaus, domes and hills.
Early Peoples Chile Peru Monte Verde is an historical site in Chile. Many artifacts have been found like digging sticks and spears. The people of Monte Verde moved from place to place for more plants and animals. The oldest known city in the Americas is Caral, Peru, more than 4,000 years ago. The society in Caral was very advanced. There is evidence of weaving, basket making and ceramic work.
The Olmec were highly skilled people. They migrated to Central America about 3,500 years ago. They contributed art, architecture, calendars and jewelry They influenced the Maya and Aztec people.
Conquest in Latin America Timeframe 1500-1533 Native people of Latin America conquered by the Spanish and Portuguese Unit 2
Pizzaro Conquers the Inca In 1528, relay messengers conquered the Inca Emperor. Huayna Capac the Inca Emperor conquered new territories to the north. The Inca explored territories. The Spanish entered the empire. Inca Emperor died from smallpox. Francisco Pizzaro took over the Inca people.
Portuguese in Brazil In 1494, European nations argued to share the western hemisphere. The Portuguese conquered the land in the east and the Spanish conquered the land of the west. The Portuguese conquest was not like the Spanish conquest of western Latin America. The Portuguese used Brazil’s soil as a resource to farm crops. They grew sugar cane on large plantations with many workers.
The Contributations of Native Peoples Native people married Europeans. Spanish and Portuguese had a strong influence. Explorers opened a settlement pass. Many Mexicans today are descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese.
Colonial Latin America 1600-1800 Main Idea: A political and social way of life developed in Colonial Latin America that depended on labor. Unit 3
Life in Spain's Colonies Spain’s colonies are rich with silver. Towns grow into big cities. A viceroy, an official from Spain was sent to rule in the Spanish king’s name. Their town had a plaza. Silver mining occurred.
Sugar and Slavery Brazil made money and got rich from sugar cane. Brazil made money and got rich from sugar cane. Raising sugar cane was hard work. Raising sugar cane was hard work. Because it was hard work Africans were brought to be slaves. Because it was hard work Africans were brought to be slaves. The Caribbean Islands also grew sugar cane. The Caribbean Islands also grew sugar cane.
An African Legacy Many African people were brought to work on the plantations. Many African people were brought to work on the plantations. Many enslaved Africans became Christians. Many enslaved Africans became Christians. The enslave Africans still held many of their own beliefs. The enslave Africans still held many of their own beliefs.
Unit 4: Unrest in Latin America Main Idea: Taxes and harsh rule lead to rebellion in Latin America. Timeframe 1765-1785
Spain’s Control Timeframe: 1700s A new line of kings came into Spain. Spain split the Viceroyalty. More officials and judges in Spain’s colonies came from Spain. Native people got heavily taxed. They tried to improve silver-mining methods. People of Quito rebelled against changes in tax laws.
Tupac Amaru II Timeframe: 1700s New taxes and years of abuse Tried peaceful means 1780- Tupac Amaru II raised an army of Indians to revolt. Revolt crushed by the government Native people learned they can join the Creoles for their cause. Jose Galrial Condorcangui, renamed Tupac Amaru II took the Native peoples side.
The Comunero Rebellion Timeframe: 1780s Another Native American revolt came up against the Spanish Rebellion erupted in Columbia Native people wanted land divided more fairly and lower taxes They demanded fairer work practices for the native people and mestizos.
Time frame: 1790-1820 Main idea: Latin American countries fight for independence. Life in Latin America Unit 5
Revolution in the Caribbean In 1789 people from France revolted against the king. They called for liberty and equality. As this carried on it traveled through to all the other colonies. Saint Domingue was the richest colony. It had different races including Mulattos. It was part of the Triangular Trade Route with Africa and North America. People were not all treated the same or had the same occupation. LIBERTY EQUALITY
Unrest in Mexico Spain ruled Mexico for over 300 years. The Mexicans had no rights. Power was mostly held by the peninsulares. Miguel Hidalgo led the Mexicans to independence. He also rang the bells of his church for the Mexicans to gather. José Morelos formed a congress that made a constitution; unfortunately the constitution did not work . Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos were both priests. Miguel Hidalgo
Continuing the Fight for Independence The fight for independence continued across Latin America. Creoles had their own ideas about what the government can and should do. Mestizos and Native People had entirely no voice in the government. They could not stand up at all for their rights. All their resources had to be sent to Spain when they wanted to produce their own goods. Venezuela was the first country to demand freedom. In 1816, Argentina declared independence.
Years of Revolution and Change Main Idea Latin America became Independent of European and began the difficult job of self- government. Timeframe: 1821 - 1850 Unit 6
South America Breaks Free Brazil became independent without blood shed. Rebels fought for years but could not defeat Spain forces in other Latin America countries. In 1819, Bolivar led a daring surprise attack in Columbia. Later Bolivar and San Martin freed the other South America countries.
Central America and Mexico Once colonies won independence, they faced many decision about how to govern. Kingdom of provinces decided to unite the neighbors of Mexico in 1822 The Guatemalan provinces then formed their own union.
Independence in the Dominican Republican In the 1800s, the Caribbean Island and Hispaniola were home to the French colony and the Spanish colony Haiti declared Independence in 1804 In 1812, Santo Domingo finally declared independence. In 1844, Dwart and his rebels drove out the Haitians.
The years 1850-1870 were a time of conflict over power and territory in Latin America. Timeframe 1850-1870
The Fight for Reform in Mexico Maximillian was appointed the emperor of Mexico. He had been the archduke of Austria. Benito Juarez starts a civil war because reformers are enraged by the Gadsden Purchase Reformers are people who want change
War Over Borders Paraguay starts war over Uruguay's freedom. Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay make the Triple Alliance.
Results of War Land was received from Paraguay Triple Alliance lost more than 100,000 soldiers and Paraguay lost one third of its citizens and most of its adult male population Paraguay was almost destroyed
Changes in Latin America Main Idea Changes in Latin America from 1870-1900 were population, culture, immigration, and war. Timeframe 1870-1900 Unit 8
Increase in Immigration The immigrants were mostly Europeans. Most came from Italy and Spain. Some came from Portugal, Germany, France, and Russia. Most arrived in Argentina. Immigrants sought a better life.
Expansion of Trade People demanded goods. The U.S. needed rubber from rainforests in Brazil for cars. The farms grew coffee, bananas, sugar, and wheat for trade. Mines had silver, copper, and iron for trade.
Results of War Bolivia lost coastal lands in the War of the Pacific. Jose Marti was a poet and a freedom fighter in Cuba. In the Spanish-American, War Cuba gained independence from Spain.
Unit 9 Latin America and the World 1910-2000 Main Idea: Most Latin American countries gained democratic governments in the 1900’s but they continued to face political and economic problems.
New Governments Military dictators took over governments. Military dictators took over governments. Many people lived in poverty. Many people lived in poverty. By the 1920s, a new democratic constitution gave: justice, due process, equality, majority rule, and minority rights. By the 1920s, a new democratic constitution gave: justice, due process, equality, majority rule, and minority rights. 1959, Fidel Castro, took over the Cuban government 1959, Fidel Castro, took over the Cuban government In the late 1900s, Violeta Chanorro, promoted peace, she was one of many people that tried for peace. In the late 1900s, Violeta Chanorro, promoted peace, she was one of many people that tried for peace.
Other Nations U.S. helped Panama win independence from Columbia in 1903. U.S. helped Panama win independence from Columbia in 1903. Panama allowed the U.S. to build a canal in Panama called the “Panama Canal”. It was finished in 1914. Panama allowed the U.S. to build a canal in Panama called the “Panama Canal”. It was finished in 1914. OAS “Organization of American States” started in 1948. OAS “Organization of American States” started in 1948. OAS provides cooperation, peaceful solutions to conflicts, and cultural understanding. OAS provides cooperation, peaceful solutions to conflicts, and cultural understanding. U.S. demanded the Soviet Union remove nuclear missiles from Cuba. U.S. demanded the Soviet Union remove nuclear missiles from Cuba.
Continuing Concerns for Latin America Deforestation of the rainforests Indigenous people forced out of their homes in the rain forests. Rainforest plants and animals might become extinct soon. Indigenous people live in communities, speak their native language and preserve their ways of tradition.