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New ‘Copy Rights’ and new Responsibilities: shifting the boundaries of peer-reviewing. Open Access Anthropology: Engaging colleagues and students into.

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Presentation on theme: "New ‘Copy Rights’ and new Responsibilities: shifting the boundaries of peer-reviewing. Open Access Anthropology: Engaging colleagues and students into."— Presentation transcript:

1 New ‘Copy Rights’ and new Responsibilities: shifting the boundaries of peer-reviewing. Open Access Anthropology: Engaging colleagues and students into self-publishing and self-archiving. Àngels Trias i Valls Thursday 26 November 2009 C-SAP Conference Roles, Rights and Responsibilities Open access Logo: Public Library of Science

2 Open Access Free and Unrestricted Online Availability of any scholarly materials »“The literature that should be freely accessible online is that which scholars give to the world without expectation of payment (…) peer-reviewed journal articles, unreviewed preprints. (free) »By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. (no profit) (public gain?) »The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited” (Budapest OAI) (to have control over recognition of authorship/integrity -to decide the extent of it: ‘gain’)Budapest OAI) * From individual sharing and self-distribution to similar others to OA becoming a political stage. Open Access Publishing Open Access Journals »Gold OA: journal hosted by a publisher with no barriers to online access and free (hybrid/delayed) »Green OA: self-archiving (deposited by the author) which may have been published as non-open access 10-15% of 25,000 peer reviewed journals are Gold OA indexed. Directory of Open Access Journals DOAJ * DOAJ: scientific, scholarly journals, high quality, peer reviewed, editorial quality control, free, based on the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)DOAJ* Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA. & Open Journal System / SSOAR What is needed for Open Access?needed for Open Access?

3 OA Overview Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. OA is compatible with copyright, peer review, revenue (even profit), print, preservation, prestige, career-advancement, indexing, and other features and supportive services associated with conventional scholarly literature.copyrightpeer reviewrevenue The legal basis of OA is either the consent of the copyright holder or the public domain, usually the former. The campaign for OA focuses on literature that authors give to the world without expectation of payment. Many OA initiatives focus on taxpayer-funded research. OA literature is not free to produce or publish. OA is compatible with peer review, and all the major OA initiatives for scientific and scholarly literature insist on its importance. There are two primary vehicles for delivering OA to research articles, OA journals and OA archives or repositories.OA journals OA archives or repositories OA journals ("gold OA"): OA archives or repositories ("green OA"): (NEW OA ‘Monographs) The OA project is constructive, not destructive. Open access is not synonymous with universal access. OA is a kind of access, not a kind of business model, license, or content. OA serves the interests of many groups. –Text above by Peter Suber –Peter Suber OA TimeLineTimeLine –Misunderstandings about OA / SPARC and VIMEOMisunderstandings about OASPARCVIMEO

4 Budapest, ECHO, Bethesda and Berlin Declarations Open Access Publishing An Open Access Publication[1] is one that meets the following two conditions:1 The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship[2], as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.2 A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository). Notes: 1. Open access is a property of individual works, not necessarily journals or publishers. 2. Community standards, rather than copyright law, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now. (Bethesda 2003)(Bethesda 2003), Budapest (2002), Berlin(2003)BudapestBerlin ECHOECHO (policy)policy Examples: Surveillance and society, DAJ, GARP, JASO,Surveillance and society DAJGARPJASO

5 Self-Archiving and Self-Publishing To deposit a digital document in a publicly accessible website with its metadata (author’s name and so on) and the full document (e-prints)e-prints Blogging WoldPress Self-publishing Vanity Publishing Institutions using self-publishing ( Self-archiving ‘The Late Age of a Print-Downloable’ (Kelty) Press/Printing as service Podcasts Non-profit scholarly press (B Jackson business-in-five-easy-steps/) business-in-five-easy-steps/ There is a great variety of steps that can be taken to build a different, more accessible (collective) and progressive system of scholarly communication: 1.Choose not to submit scholarly journal articles or other works to publications owned by for-profit firms. 2.Say no, when asked to undertake peer-review work on a book or article manuscript that has been submitted for publication by a for-profit publisher or a journal under the control of a commercial publisher. 3.Do not seek or accept the editorship of a journal owned or under the control of a commercial publisher. 4.Do not take on the role of series editor for a book series being published by a for-profit publisher. 5.Turn down invitations to join the editorial boards of commercially published journals or book series. Rigorous self-archiving! and ResearchGate free self-publishing for academics

6 Open Access Anthropology 1 st May Open Access Anthropology Day Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder. In most fields, scholarly journals do not pay authors, who can therefore consent to OA without losing revenue. In this respect scholars and scientists are very differently situated from most musicians and movie-makers, and controversies about OA to music and movies do not carry over to research literature. OA is entirely compatible with peer review, and all the major OA initiatives for scientific and scholarly literature insist on its importance. Just as authors of journal articles donate their labor, so do most journal editors and referees participating in peer review. OA literature is not free to produce, even if it is less expensive to produce than conventionally published literature. The question is not whether scholarly literature can be made costless, but whether there are better ways to pay the bills than by charging readers and creating access barriers. Sudan Open Access rica_an_in rica_an_in AAA Opposes OA (2004-2006) Critique to AAA (opens AA to some explorations of OAsome explorations

7 Open Anthropology Open Anthropology is about opening knowledge production to reciprocal and collaborative engagements between academics and broader publics, while trying to put that into practice on this site. It is about building on ideas and examples of ways of speaking about the human condition that look critically at dominant discourses, oriented toward producing a non-state, non-market, knowledge and a public practice to suit. Open Anthropology is also an invitation to critically reexamine the institutionalization of knowledge, looking for ways to reintegrate anthropology with other knowledge systems, and other disciplines, while criticizing the "disciplining" of the social sciences. Open Anthropology, as represented on this site, is explicitly about decolonizing knowledge, combined with a pronounced anti-imperialist orientation. ( Open Anthropology Journal Oxford goes Open anthropological-society-of-oxford anthropological-society-of-oxford Open Anthropology Cooperative Faux Access African Journals

8 Self Archiving Anthropology Archiving Anthropology Past Questions: Does Material collected becomes something different once is archived? Archiving is different from publishing We have no control on how it is used, harder to edit, P Caplan “underwear drawer” Preserving Records Past and Current Issues: Multiplicity of locations –accentuated. Schmeltz, -who owns the data, who controls access, what is fair use? Fowler & Crum Public Anthropology (2004) Digital Archive for Anthropology CRESC resources Self-archiving for anthropologists – – – solution solution –

9 The AAA many positions on Open Access 2004 to 2006 OA: Not a realistic option and full oppositionNot a realistic option 2007 to 2009 change, twitter, online control, blogs, AAA –3/11/09 two months OA access –A proposed legislation would require final manuscripts of peer-reviewed journal articles based on federally-funded research to be made freely available on government-hosted websites six months after publication by commercial and non-profit publishers (such as the AAA). Here are their main concerns about the legislation, expressed in a letter by these associations: »1) it would undermine the value-added investments made by publishers in the peer review process; »2) it would duplicate existing mechanisms that enable the public to access scientific journals by requiring the government to establish and maintain costly digital repositories; »3) it would position the government as a competitor to independent publishers, posing a disincentive for them to sustain investment and innovation in disseminating authoritative research. The net result, opponents argue, is that the overall quality of research competitiveness would be lowered.

10 Critiques to the AAA: changing roles in sharing practice Anthropologist sharing knowledge outside AAA paradigms Anthropology Open Access Day Open Source Anthropology Libraries (as places of archive and locating repertoires and repositories of anthropological work) – Libraries and their authors ‘have begun to assume another role’ that of the publisher’ (Appel, Servaes 2004 Shaping a culture of sustainable access) Shaping Shared Knowledge Cooperatives of Learning / Learning and sharing practice (new pedagogies of learning after web 2.0 technologies) Alternative Licensing

11 Shared Knowledge Anthropology of/in Circulation: The Future of Open Access and Scholarly Societies Kriesten: ‘Questions modes and practices of circulation’ -Open Access: emphasis on ‘process’ rather than ‘product’ – the value of peer-review – openeness on how editorial and peer-review is done (closeness) – exercise on accountability – affordability –openness as ethical expansion – re-use ‘Mandated self-archiving’: leverage of power relations “Mandated self- archiving universalizes the properness of "being open", which has been shown to cause conflicts, and perhaps unnecessarily limits the kinds of publication that can be developed out of research.” Research is not just ‘publication’ (collaborative research) Public anthropology/sociology/politics Dominant mode of American sociocultural anthropology (in thinking through reading/publishing/making public/access/management of research findings/acreditation of the value of findings/publications Dominant mode of UK’s auditing academic practices

12 Co-Operatives of Learning Open Anthropology Co-Operative Open Anthropology Cooperative Press ss orking-papers-series/

13 Alternative Licensing, Pamflets and Copyright Taboos: Alternative licensing and electronic distribution of text as the future of academic publishing Creative Commons Prickly Paradigm Sahlins: "I just want to say that I truly support the idea of the free dissemination of intellectual information, and that I truly lament the various forms of copyrights and patents that are being put on so-called intellectual property. I also lament the collusion of universities in licensing the results of scientific research, and thus violating the project of the free dissemination of knowledge that is their reason for existence. So I consider it an important act to release these books under a Creative Commons type of license. I’m happy, and also a little proud, to do so." The internet a new medium for pamfleting

14 Issues on Open Access: Reserving Rights The “Altermodern Capitalisation of the Internet” Authorising and Auditing Online Property-ies: reserving rights Paradigm: –Increased dissemination / free disseminationfree dissemination –fragmented public venues –costs of publication / owners of publication rights –digital publishing (producing for the Internet) –availability of work / free availability of work –diversity of work (enriched publications) –limited distribution –knowledge society Non traditional peer-reviewed publications Peer-review publications What is Peer-Review? Accountability / Property / Community Neo-liberal Universities and Authoring Repositories (JISC)(JISC Learning communities Academic ‘rights’ – ‘Reserving Rights’ and ‘Releasing Rights’ and ‘Copyleft’‘Copyleft Copyright - Creative Commons – Restrictions – Permission – Shared – ConsentCreative Commons Profit and business model as part of the Academic model - WIPOWIPO Freely accessible libraries, repositories, repertoires, mashing, Access and Control Value of Self-Archiving Criticisms to Self-Archiving and Open Access –AAA (AnthroSource) / What we offer as institution/gatekeepingAAA

15 Copy Left Alternative Compensation System Anti-copyright Copyleft Copyleft is a play on the word copyright to describe the practice of using copyright law to remove restrictions on distributing copies and modified versions of a work for others and requiring that the same freedoms be preserved in modified versions.Copyleftplaycopyright Copyleft is a form of licensing and can be used to modify copyrights for works such as computer software, documents, music and art.licensingcomputer softwaremusicart Copynorm Copyright aspects of downloading and streaming Copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing Copyright-free Creative Commons Creative Commons Licenses Creative Commons International Crypto-anarchism Database right Digital freedom Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity by Lawrence LessigFree Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control CreativityLawrence Lessig Opposition to copyright Permission culture — neologism by Lawrence Lessig. (Wikipedia)Permission cultureWikipedia

16 JISC – New Narratives of Acquisition and Control Open Access is not self-publishing, nor a way to bypass peer-review and publication, nor is it a kind of second-class, cut-price publishing route. It is simply a means to make research results freely available online to the whole research community. Claim of origin…

17 The impact of Web 2.0 on Scholarly Societies The Impact of the Web 2.0 World on Scholarly Societies AAA JSTOR + UCP Association for Research Libraries EdPunk Open Access –Teaching Open Anthropology co-operative –wiki resources Editorial/Repository/Working Paper Series Creative Commons


19 Share, Remix, Reuse — Legally

20 Creative Commons Licence License your work

21 Register your licensed work Archive your work (deposit an electronic copy of your work somewhere) private server/ work server/ community server / research gateresearch gate commercial Issuu / Publish lulu / wikis / wordpress / web 2.0Issuululu Acquire a License with CC (select how you want to distribute your work and for others to use it) Register your licensed work (make a note of your licenses / of your copies) (example)

22 Links and other resources OAPEN Self-Archiving anthropology-and-the-military/ anthropology-and-the-military/ Scholarworks uence=1 uence=1 Scholarly publishing commerical-and-not-for-profit-scholarly-publishing/ commerical-and-not-for-profit-scholarly-publishing/ Open access anthropology PowerPoint on Open Access open access bibliography oasis scholarly book practical steps for implementing OA Article 12 Nov 1 1 open access week jisc booklet open access books Peer-reviewed open access books reviewed-open-access-books.html reviewed-open-access-books.html

23 Workshop Description The workshop aims at a discussion on how anthropology is dealing with the new ‘rights’, roles and relationships involved in self-archiving, self-publishing and shared learning in open access; and how their impact on the ubiquitous and guarded process of peer-reviewing may impact Higher Education. This is a workshop/seminar looking at how we negotiate relationships in the fast shifting landscape of publishing ‘rights’ -through self-publishing and open access learning communities in Higher Education. The workshop would involve a discussion and audience participation as part of the session. The purpose of this session would be to allow participants to learn about the new types of open access, the role of publishing and self-archiving, and hand-on guidance on how to go about publishing and self-archiving, and how to contribute to the expansion of open access through learning and teaching. Traditional academic publishing and perceptions on what constitute the production of publishable academic knowledge have undergone, with communication technologies, many shifts in perspectives over the past two decades. The consolidation of social networking and their integration into learning practice over this period has meant that we are now in the position to establish a genuine challenge to the foundations of publishing ‘rights’ in traditional neo-liberal academic practice. Examples from anthropology suggest that these new learning and sharing practices (which may included shared downloading (legal and illegal), shared ownership of texts and teaching materials, open access publications, open access teaching materials, non peer reviewed publications of student’s work, and self- archiving of teacher’s unpublished papers) may have an impact on the responsibilities of the student and teacher to each other, and will have an impact on the production of academic knowledge; it may also produce a shift as where to locate critical thinking spaces and how to produce critical voice, as well as how to mediate critical voice. The workshop will make use of internet environments in situ and will be broadcasted online. There will be a poster. The questions the workshop may want to address are various: How do we reflect on the new opportunities and challenges for HE with non traditional peer-reviewed publications? What roles does the university have in dealing with self-archiving, shared and open access based communities of learning? Can open access and self-publishing change the power relation in student-teacher relationship and how do we deal with it? And what is our responsibility to teachers and students acquiring new ‘rights’ with new ‘copyright’ (copyleft) possibilities? How can learning communities in today’s universities empower their learning experience through open access, and are universities ready for the challenge this is going to impose on the boundaries of academic ‘rights’?

24 Creative Commons License for this work This work is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. To view a copy of this licence, visit sa/2.0/uk/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA.

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