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Wen-Lung Wu and Wen-Cheng Chang ISLANDS OF THE WORLD VIII – Changing Islands - Changing Worlds November 2, 2004 Kinmen, Taiwan Institute of Zoology / Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Wen-Lung Wu and Wen-Cheng Chang ISLANDS OF THE WORLD VIII – Changing Islands - Changing Worlds November 2, 2004 Kinmen, Taiwan Institute of Zoology / Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wen-Lung Wu and Wen-Cheng Chang ISLANDS OF THE WORLD VIII – Changing Islands - Changing Worlds November 2, 2004 Kinmen, Taiwan Institute of Zoology / Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan 2-4-B-4 Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan Study on “Human-Shell Relationships” in Indo-Pacific Area

2 What are we thinking? Shell ? Human ? Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

3 The Motive An interesting essay from Great “Science” Journal ! Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

4 The Motive Middle Stone Age Shell Beads from South Africa Christopher Henshilwood; Francesco d'Errico; Marian Vanhaeren; Karen van Niekerk; and Zenobia Jacobs Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

5 The Motive Continuing discussions keep talking about this Topic Nature Science Update (04/16/2004) -- Ancient jewellery found in African cave New Scientist.com (04/16/2004) -- Ancient shell jewellery hints at language Scientific American (04/16/2004) -- Ancient Shells May Be Earliest Jewels Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

6 The Motive Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan Our exhibition hall collects many shell beads of aborigines of Taiwan, belonging to Atayal, Amis, Paiwan, and Bunun Tribe; most of these collections came from Atayal Tribe. The culture and history of shell beads of aborigines, including all collections in N.T.U., did not have any science descriptions or researches. ….(Chang, 1946) Nevertheless, shells had been hugely collected for food, ornaments, handcraft, even currency, completely went into human’s life, not only a snatch.. …..(Chang, 1958) “The shell industry of Taiwan at Prehistory” written by Zhao-mei Lian, Taiwan “The shell merchandise and shell currency – discussing purposes of sea shells at Shang-Zhou dynasty of China” written by Yung-Di Lee, Taiwan. About 3 to 4 hundred million years ago, the Cambrian, the mollusks were ready to occur on earth. Today, 120,000 species of mollusks are living with us. They are flourishing and multipurpose for human being to use. As foodstuff, shells are the main sources of protein. We can find the evidence from shell mounds all over the world…..(Wu,et al., 2003)

7 1. Biogeography and Austronesian The Inferential View Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

8 ** Map modified from “Distribution of the Austronesian Language Family and Major Subgroupings”, Research school of Pacific and Asian Studies, National Australian University. Madagascar Taiwan New Zealand Easter Island Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

9 The Inferential View 2. Biogeography and Shells Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

10 Wallace’s Zoogeographic Provinces Distribution of Mollusks ( Dance, 1974 ) Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

11 3. Shells and Austronesian The Inferential View Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

12 Demarcation of two groups of Austronesian is almost overlaps the Wallace’s line. This demarcation bases on the characteristics of language: one belongs to Eastern Austronesian or Oceanic group; another belongs to Western Austronesian or Hesperonesian group. The most important division is between Oceanic and the Western Malayo-Polynesian group, with the complicated languages of Wallacea sandwiched in between. Wallace was particularly impressed by the sudden difference in bird families he encountered when he sailed some twenty miles east of the island of Bali and landed on Lombok. In his honor this dividing line, which extends northward between Borneo and Sulawesi, is still referred to today as Wallace's Line. Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

13 The Inference Result Relationships between Austronesian and Shells Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

14 Austronesian Distribution ( Research school of Pacific and Asian Studies, National Australian University ) Wallace’s Zoogeographic Provinces Distribution of Mollusks ( Dance, 1974 ) Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

15 The Method Shells as Food in Indo-Pacific Area Shells as Clothes in Indo-Pacific Area Shells as Living in Indo-Pacific Area Shells as Transportation in Indo-Pacific Area Shells as Education in Indo-Pacific Area Shells as Leisure in Indo-Pacific Area Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

16 English Version is Coming Soon ~ Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

17 Six subjects of Shell & Humanity Database Part 1 Food Wearing Architecture Rice wrapped in ShellShell for food in TaiwanRabble for clam collect Roast snail and Plate NecklaceButtonHand Ring Stone CavingShell temple Historic temple repair – using calcined shells, not cement

18 Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan Six subjects of Shell & Humanity Database Part 2 Transportation Religion, Custom, & Education Leisure Time Bridge name with shell Commemorative coin The first nuclear submarine “Nautilus” Woodcarving fan with inlayShell booksInstruments of Lamaism Pearl dollSeal with shell pattern Taiwan stamp with shell story Handicraft

19 Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan

20 Thank You Institute of Zoology/Research Center for Biodiversity Academia Sinica, Taiwan


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