Presentation on theme: "AP MUSIC THEORY MR. JACKSON UNIT 11: SECONDARY DOMINANTS."— Presentation transcript:
AP MUSIC THEORY MR. JACKSON UNIT 11: SECONDARY DOMINANTS
Scale Degree Stability Every chord has a function that depends on its location or hierarchy within the tonality. For example, an F Major chord functions differently as I in F Major, as IV in C Major, or as V in B b Major. The term unstable refers to how active or restless the note is; that is, how great is the need to move forward and resolve to a more stable note? The two most restless tones are the resolution tones: Ti and Fa. They are both found in the V 7 chord and the vii o triad.
Dominant Function The similarities of these chords (V 7 and vii o ) puts them in the dominant family – the most active function. Dominant function has a very strong pull to tonic, whether that tonic is the tonal center or a temporary tonic. The secondary dominant function serves to heighten or intensify the pull to resolution. Temporary tonicization is generally attributed to borrowing two or three chords from a closely related key to heighten the harmonic intensity and color. The leading tone, scale degree 7, or Ti, no matter how you label it, is the third in a dominant chord or the root of a leading-tone chord. Both resolve upward to Do. Therefore, this borrowed chord has a dominant function (V or vii o ) to its resolution chord – the temporary tonic. This secondary chord is identified as a SECONDARY DOMINANT.
How to identify a Secondary Dominant/LT
Building/Resolving Secondary Dominants/LTs A secondary chord symbol has two parts separated by a slash. The bottom of the chord symbol represents the temporary tonic and is diatonic to your key. (What the secondary dominant is resolving TO) The chord symbol on top of the slash represents the chord quality, inversion, and function of this borrowed chord in relation to the temporary tonic, the chord on bottom. For example, in the key of F Major: V 7 /V is spelled G – B n – D – F and is pronounced “V 7 OF V.” This chord is expected to resolve to V. The B natural is the accidental that is an altered note in the key of F major. The bottom roman numeral (F in FM) is C Major (our temporary tonic). The dominant seventh chord or V7 in CM is G – B n – D – F and it resolves to our temporary tonic C – E – G.
The Map Home Tonic I Store Subdominant IV Park Submediant vi Excitement-Conflict Dominant V or V 7 Meet up with Friends Supertonic ii 6 Composers used SECONDARY DOMINANTS to ADD MORE to the journey!
The Map Home Tonic I Store Subdominant IV Park Submediant vi Excitement-Conflict Dominant V or V 7 Meet up with Friends Supertonic ii 6 Library Secondary dominant V/vi BANK Secondary dominant V/IV Get some food Secondary dominant V 7 /V Instead of always using V/.., we can also use vii o /..
The Map – LT Style Home Tonic I Store Subdominant IV Park Submediant vi Excitement-Conflict Dominant V or V 7 Meet up with Friends Supertonic ii 6 Library Secondary LT vii o 7/vi BANK Secondary LT vii ø 7 /IV Get some food Secondary LT vii ø 7 /V When resolving to a MAJOR, the LT will be ø – When Resolving to MINOR, the LT will be o
Example: vii o7 /vi in B b Major This will be a fully-diminished chord because vi in B b is G minor. The vii o7 of G minor is F# - A – C – E b. F# is the raised 7 th in G minor and the altered note that signals you are temporarily out of Bb Major. The F# resolves to G creating the leading-tone relationship. E b resolves to D because the 7 th always resolves downward! C resolves to B b because Fa-Mi (Me) in new key. F# resolves to G because Ti-Do in new key.
Example: in E b Major This is the dominant seventh chord in first inversion in the key of A b Major. The chord is spelled E b – G – B b – D b and would have G in the bass. The leading-tone relationship occurs between Mi-Fa, already a half step. In this case D b is the accidental that is not in our original key (E b Major). The leading tone is the third of the chord and resolves to the new tonic A b and is in the bass.
Example: vii ø7 /V in D Major
Example: in E minor
Another way to Visually ID Secondary Dominants IF you are in a MAJOR key and you analyze a chord as II, THEN think V/V III, THEN think V/vi VI, THEN think V/ii
Most Common Melodic Patterns Sol-Fi-Sol Fa-Fi-Sol Fi-Sol La-Si-La Sol-Si-La
Score Analysis – Do we see a Secondary Dominant?