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The 6/4 and Other Linear Chords.  Root & First Inversion Triads (5/3 & 6/3) can be used freely – all consonant intervals  6/4 (2 nd inversion) has dissonant.

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Presentation on theme: "The 6/4 and Other Linear Chords.  Root & First Inversion Triads (5/3 & 6/3) can be used freely – all consonant intervals  6/4 (2 nd inversion) has dissonant."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 6/4 and Other Linear Chords

2  Root & First Inversion Triads (5/3 & 6/3) can be used freely – all consonant intervals  6/4 (2 nd inversion) has dissonant 4 th which must be approached and resolved correctly 6/4 functions linearly – comes between more stable harmonies; much like a vii o6 between a I and I 6 or a neighboring IV between two tonic triads

3 Types of 6/4 Chords  Accented Cadential Occurs at authentic or half cadence  Unaccented Passing Between two harmonies  Sustained or Pedal Over which a neighboring or passing chord occurs  Arpeggiated

4 The Accented/Cadential 6/4  Useful in the progression IV-V-I or ii 6 -V-I to help alleviate parallel 5 ths  Built on the 5 th of tonic; however more closely attributed to a dominant harmony because it aurally lacks the stability of tonic  Functions as an expansion of dominant harmony

5 Accented/Cadential 6/4 I 6 IV V I I I 6 IV V I 6/45/3 Unintended //5th

6 Accented/Cadential 6/4  Accented 6/4 followed by root position dominant chord  Dissonant 4 th prepared by common tone from the previous IV and resolves downward by step (typical suspension)  Frequently appears at an authentic cadence  Soprano outlines (^4 -^3-^2-^1) but may appear as (^8-^8-^7-^8)

7 Accented/Cadential 6/4 cm: i 6 iv 6 i Cadential 6/4 indicated by Roman numeral as part of the suspended dominant function

8 Accented/Cadential 6/4  Dominant 6/4 to 5/3 sometimes may occur as a half cadence, with the final triad of the authentic cadence omitted  This occurs frequently in slow movements of the Classical period

9 Accented/Cadential 6/4  In partwriting… The bass note of the 6/4 is almost always doubled ○ This doubled note (^5) may remain or descend to ^4 (of a V4/2) on its way to ^3

10 Elaborating the Cadential 6/4  No matter the elaboration, the voice leading should always remain constant A: ii 6 ( 6/5 6/4 5/4 5/3 ) I V

11 The Passing 6/4 Chord  May occurs as a passing sonority between chords of similar function  Invariably occurs on an unstressed beat  Non-essential linear chord  Passing V6/4 (2 nd inversion) may function as a passing sonority linking a root-position tonic to a first-inversion tonic; I – (V6/4) – I 6 or the reverse  Commonly used to link two pre-dominant chords with stepwise motion Most common: IV 6 – (6/4) – ii 6/5

12 The Passing 6/4 Chord Eb: I 6 (6/4) I D: IV 6 6/4 ii 6/5 V 7 I

13 The Pedal 6/4 Chord  Features a sustained bass note over which the dissonant 4 th may occur in either neighboring or passing motion The neighboring version in the first example shows the 5 – 6 – voice leading progression over a stationary bass note. On both accounts the 6/4 chord is marked only with figured bass numerals.

14 The Pedal 6/4 Chord  Be careful when identifying the note that functions as the actual bass in accompanimental parts In most cases the first bass note of the measure of figuration is the real bass C: 5/3 5/3 6/4 (!) 5/3 The recurring bass notes in m. 1-2 are not 6/4s. The bass note is sustained bass and root! Measure 3 is a legit 6/4. The F# in the RH is a chromatic passing tone

15 The Pedal 6/4 Chord In this case the dissonant 4 th appears as part of a three-chord passing progression over the sustained or pedal bass.

16 The Arpeggiated 6/4 Chord  Created by having a broken chord or arpeggiation in the bass  Usually extends over a series of measures rather than just one

17 Other Treatments of the 6/4  See text pg. 278 – 279 for further examples and treatments of the 6/4  See especially the Beethoven (16.11b) and Scarlatti (16.11d)

18 Cadenzas and the 6/4  Italian for cadence  Written and performed for a solo instrument in a concerto; typical of Classical period works  Usually virtuosic in nature; usually on thematic material from earlier in the movement  Usually begins with an extended 6/4 followed by improvisations and movement toward the dominant  A long trill on ^2 usually leads in to an orchestral tutti on the tonic harmony

19 6/4 Chords in Harmonizations  Cadential 6/4 : , , or when the second chord is 6/4  Passing 6/4: 7-(8)-2, prolonging dominant, or 4-(3)-2 & 6-(5)-4, prolonging pre-dominant  Pedal, neighboring 6/4: 3-(4)-3 or 5-(6)-5 over tonic harmony or passing 2-(3)-4 over dominant harmony

20 Other Diatonic Linear Chords  Consonant Passing I Used when //5 th are looming Helps link IV- V; stepwise in upper voice  V – IV progression (inherently retro) Interrupted the tonic to dominant motion Appears frequently in sequences and in a standard blues progression Usually appears in major modes

21 Other Diatonic Linear Chords  V- IV Progression (continued) Sounds like a plagal cadence Delays tonic by rerouting it through the sub- dominant Frequent tool of Romantic composers  Apparent Seventh Chords Arise out of linear voice leading Incorrectly analyzed as ii 4/2 or ii 6/5 ; they do not resolve properly (8-7) or progress to dominant When analyzing just provide the figured bass in parentheses

22 Other Diatonic Linear Chords  Interplay of Harmony and Melodic Dissonance Usually the origin of weirdo passing harmonies ○ Confusion comes with embellishing tones played simultaneously with reiterated chords ○ Do not give these chords Roman numerals or even begin to analyze them


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