Presentation on theme: "Mr. Jackson AP Music Theory. A cadence is the harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic conclusion to a phrase. It also helps to establish the tonal center. It."— Presentation transcript:
A cadence is the harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic conclusion to a phrase. It also helps to establish the tonal center. It is the proof we need to confidently determine what key we are in. Think of cadences as musical punctuation. Let’s construct some sentences: Sentence 1: Construct a sentence that is thorough and ends with a predictable, complete thought. Sentence 2: Construct a sentence that you think will end predictable, but leaves you wondering… Sentence 3: Construct a sentence that is incomplete and leaves you hanging…
Composers have always had an intuitive sense of how music “ends” or concludes. Early cadences were simple, quaint, and to some – unfulfilling. Prior to the baroque period and the establishment of functional harmony, cadences were considered simply a manipulation of melodic lines that converged or diverged to a point of rest, usually the final (the first degree of a mode). Here are some early types of cadences:
The baroque period brought about the familiar cadence types: The standard cadences (authentic, half, plagal, and deceptive) continued with little change from the baroque period throughout the classical period.
Authentic Cadence – The most common phrase-ending chord progression uses the dominant chord (V) to set up the tension and the tonic (I or i) for the release. Perfect Authentic (PAC) – Requires both dominant and tonic chords to be in ROOT POSITION. Also, the SOPRANO VOICE must have tonic! Imperfect Authentic (IAC) – Weaker authentic (V – I) cadence that has either chord INVERTED, or has a chord member other than the root in the soprano of the tonic chord. Could also contain the vii o or vii o6 to tonic. Plagal Cadence (PC) – Slightly weaker progression using subdominant to tonic (IV to I) Nicknamed the “Amen Cadence,” and is traditionally used when singing “Amen” at the end of hymns. Deceptive Cadence (DC) – An ending progression where the dominant chord is unexpectedly resolved to the submediant instead of the tonic. (V to vi) All other chord tones resolve correct, except the bass. Half Cadence (HC) – Ends on the dominant (V). It’s unresolved tension is used in the middle of a melody, an inconclusive cadence that typically ends on a root position V. This cadence acts like a “comma” in a sentence and must be followed by another phrase that completes the musical thought. Phrygian Half Cadence (PHC) – A specific kind of half cadence that occurs in harmonic minor. (iv 6 to V) The descending bass line (Leto Sol) is approached from above by a half step and is characteristic of the Phrygian mode with its half step.
CadenceProgression Half (HC) ANY V, V 7 Phrygian Half (PHC) iv 6 V, V 7 Perfect Authentic (PAC) V, V 7 I TONIC IN SOP Imperfect Authentic (IAC) vii o6, vii 7,V 6, V I Deceptive Cadence (DC) V, v VI, vi Plagal Cadence (PC) IV, iv I, i