Presentation on theme: "Secondary dominants are chords that are altered to sound like dominants (which are the fifth scale degrees of diatonic scales). This means changing minor."— Presentation transcript:
Secondary dominants are chords that are altered to sound like dominants (which are the fifth scale degrees of diatonic scales). This means changing minor triads to make them major and changing seventh chords or make them major-minor seventh chords.
Characteristics of Secondary Dominants: 1. To be a secondary dominant, a chord must be either a major triad or a major- minor seventh chord. Slashes (/) are read as of. Therefore, V/vi becomes V of vi.
2. Secondary dominants are called altered chords because they contain nondiatonic tones (tones that are not found in the prevailing key). Secondary dominants are created out of diatonic chords that have been changed to make them major.
3. Because secondary dominants are temporarily raised to the status of dominant they naturally resolve to their temporary tonic, just as primary dominants (V) resolve to tonic (I). Thus, most often secondary dominants move in circle progressions V/vi to vi, V/ii to ii, and V/V to V. The V/V chord resolved to the V chord.
4. In circle progressions, the chord to which secondary dominants progress is called a tonicized chord. When V/ii progresses to ii, the ii triad is the tonicized chord. Notice that only major and minor chords can function as tonicized chords. **The chords that are being pointed to are the tonicized chords.**
5. Secondary dominants may occasionally follow other secondary dominants as long as it eventually resolves to the temporary tonic chord. V/iii V/vi V/ii V/V V
6. Secondary dominants may be inverted
7. The secondary dominant triad of IV is simply the tonic (I), so I is not called a secondary dominant (there are no altered pitches). However, V 7 /IV in C major contains one altered note, so it is listed as a secondary dominant. b ___
The voice leading of secondary dominant chords is the same as for primary dominant chords. Resolve the seventh of the V 7 chord down one scale degree in the same voice. All four factors of the V7 are usually present. But, for smoothness of voice leading, the fifth may be omitted and the root doubled.
Because leading-tone chords are often used as dominant substitutes, they also may function as temporary leading-tone chords–leading-tone-sounding chords in a key other than the prevailing key. Basically the secondary dominant leading- tone chord is resolving to its tonic which then resolves to the tonic of the root. V 7 /V V I
Characteristics of Secondary Leading-Tone Chords: 1.Secondary leading-tone chords have only three qualities: Diminished Triad – vii o / Diminished-minor seventh chord – vii ø7 / Diminished-diminished seventh chord – vii o7 / 2. Like secondary dominants, secondary leading-tone chords are called altered chords because they contain nondiatonic tones. Secondary leading-tone chords are created out of diatonic chords that have been changed to make them diminished, diminished-minor, or diminished-diminished.
3. Because they are temporarily raised to the status of leading-tone chords, these chords naturally resolve to their temporary tonic, just as primary dominants resolve to their tonic. Secondary dominants do not normally move in circle progressions but resolve to a major triad whose root is a half step above that of the secondary leading-tone chord. vii o7 /ii iivii o7 /iii iii vii o7 /IV IVvii o7 /V V vii o7 /vi vi
4. Secondary leading-tone chords create a leading-tone relationship with diatonic major and minor triads: ~In major keys: ii, iii, IV, V, vi ~In minor keys: III, iv, V, VI 5. When secondary leading-tone chords resolve in a conventional manner, the resolution chord is called a tonicized chord. When vii o7 /V resolves to V, the V triad is called a tonicized chord.
6. Secondary leading-tone chords occasionally follow other leading-tone chords. In these cases, conventional resolution is often impossible. VI vii o7 vii o4 3 i 6
The voice leading of secondary leading- tones is the same as for primary leading- tone chords. The tritone should be resolved inward if a diminished 5 th or outward if a augmented 4 th, although its not always possible. Resolve the diminished 7 th down one diatonic scale degree. Move all voices with as much step movement as possible.