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Sickle Cell Anemia By: Jazzalyn Williams, Ashley Townsell & Makarios Ngure.

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Presentation on theme: "Sickle Cell Anemia By: Jazzalyn Williams, Ashley Townsell & Makarios Ngure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sickle Cell Anemia By: Jazzalyn Williams, Ashley Townsell & Makarios Ngure

2 History  Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder. It alters the shape of the red blood cells (RBCs). This decreases their ability to carry oxygen. It can also cause acute episodes of pain. These are called a sickle cell crisis. The body will also destroy the sickle cells. The loss of RBCs results in anemia.  The change in the ability and number of RBCs can decrease the amount of oxygen for the body

3 SS hortness of breath DD izziness HH eadache CC oldness in the hands and feet PP ale skin CC hest pain Hand-Foot Syndrome Splenic Crisis Infections Acute Chest Syndrome Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Delayed Growth and Puberty in Children Stroke Eye Problems Priapism Gallstones Ulcers on the Legs Multiple Organ Failures Symptoms/ Complications Symptoms Complications

4 What Group is affected by the diseases?/How many people are affected?  Affects millions of people worldwide  It's most common in people whose families come from Africa, South or Central America (especially Panama), Caribbean islands, Mediterranean countries (such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy), India, and Saudi Arabia.  U.S 70,000 people are affected  It mainly affects African Americans. The disease occurs in about 1 out of every 500 African American births. Sickle cell anemia also affects Hispanic Americans. The disease occurs in 1 out of every 36,000 Hispanic American births.  About 2 million Americans have sickle cell trait. The condition occurs in about 1 in 12 African Americans.

5 Treatment  Blood Transfusions – Transfusions correct anemia by increasing the number of normal red blood cells in circulation. They can also be used to treat spleen enlargement in children before the condition becomes life-threatening. Regular transfusion therapy can help prevent recurring strokes in children at high risk. Oral Antibiotics - Giving oral penicillin twice a day beginning at 2 months and continuing until the child is at least 5 years old can prevent pneumococcal infection and early death. Recently, however, several new penicillin-resistant strains of pneumonia bacteria have been reported. Since vaccines for these bacteria are ineffective in young children, studies are being planned to test new vaccines. Hydroxyurea - The first effective drug treatment for adults with severe sickle cell anemia was reported in early 1995, when a study conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute showed that daily doses of the anticancer drug hydroxyurea reduced the frequency of painful crises and acute chest syndrome. Patients taking the drug needed fewer blood transfusions.

6 Prognosis  There is no cure for the condition though bone marrow transplants can significantly help a small number of people. People with the condition tend to have a shorter life span but careful management of symptoms and complications can improve the quality of life and increase the life span. Some people can survive past the age of 50 if they manage their condition carefully.

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8  ases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html ases/Sca/SCA_WhatIs.html  _cell_anemia/prognosis.htm _cell_anemia/prognosis.htm  lth/healthgate/getcontent.asp?URLhealth gate=% html%22 lth/healthgate/getcontent.asp?URLhealth gate=% html%22

9 *TAY-SACHS* *there are three forms of Tay-Sachs diseases, categorized by the types of symptoms and the age when the symptoms first appear. Most common appear when the child is 3 to months old, with the disease progressing rapidly to death by age 4 or 5. “ Begins to affect nerves, symptoms appear. ”

10 INTIALLY, SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE:  Initially, symptoms may include:Seizures ・ Noticeable behavior changes, such as the infant stops smiling, crawling or rolling over and loses the ability to grasp or reach out ・ Increased startle reaction ・ Decreased eye contact ・ Listlessness ・ Increasing irritability ・ Slow body growth with increasing head size ・ Delayed mental and social skills

11 THE DISEASE PROGRESSES, THESE SYMPTOMS BECOME MORE DOMINANT  Initially, symptoms may include: ・ Seizures ・ Noticeable behavior changes, such as the infant stops smiling, crawling or rolling over and loses the ability to grasp or reach out ・ Increased startle reaction ・ Decreased eye contact ・ Listlessness ・ Increasing irritability ・ Slow body growth with increasing head size ・ Delayed mental and social skills

12 AS THE DISEASE PROGRESSES THESE SYMPTOMS BECOME MORE DOMINANT  ・ Seizures ・ Noticeable behavior changes, such as the infant stops smiling, crawling or rolling over and loses the ability to grasp or reach out ・ Increased startle reaction ・ Decreased eye contact ・ Listlessness ・ Increasing irritability ・ Slow body growth with increasing head size ・ Delayed mental and social skills

13 Baby girl  There is no cure for any form of Tay- Sachs disease. But doctors may be able to help a child with Tay-Sachs cope with the symptoms of the disease by prescribing medication to relieve pain, manage seizures, and control muscle spasticity.

14 Baby boy  Some people carry the genetic mutation that causes Tay- Sachs, but do not develop the full-blown disease

15 Emily *Emily has tay sachs disease and she is 6 years old.

16 Lilly  Lilly also has tay sachs disease and she is 4 years old. Most children can die by the age of four.

17 websites  Google images  Wikepedia  parent/medical/geneti c/tay_sachs.html parent/medical/geneti c/tay_sachs.html  Wikipedia  sachs.org/wiki/T AY- SACHS_disease sachs

18 Roles:  Jazzalyn Williams:  Put together the Sickle Cell Anemia power point  Helped merge both power points  Ashley Townsell:  Put together the Tay- Sachs power point  Helped merge both power points  Makarios Ngure:  Put together the Tay- Sachs power point  Helped merge both power points


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