Presentation on theme: "S ICKLE C ELL A NEMIA Muna Abubaker & Christina Fry 4 th Period."— Presentation transcript:
S ICKLE C ELL A NEMIA Muna Abubaker & Christina Fry 4 th Period
H OW DO YOU GET THIS ? A person inherits the disease from both parents. From one parent a person inherits the hemoglobin S gene and from the other parent the normal hemoglobin (A). This is the sickle cell trait.
W HERE IS THE MUTATION ? Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen.
Sickle Cell, A History Even though sickle cell anemia is more common in Africa it wasn’t reported until 1870. It could be because the symptoms of the disease were similar to other diseases in that region, blood wasn’t usually tested and children with the disease usually died as an infant. Some of the earliest documents of the disease involved Africans in the US. In 1846 a paper called “Case of Absence of the Spleen” was the first to describe the disease. It talked about a runaway slave who died and was autopsied and they found “the strange phenomenon of a man having lived without a spleen”. In 1904 Dr. James Herrick reported “peculiar elongated and sickle shaped” cells who came from the first sickle cell patient Walter Clement Noel who complained of abdominal pain, shortness of breath, dizziness and muscle pains. In 1922 the disease was named “sickle cell anemia” by Vernon Mason In 1954, Anthony Allison observed that sickle cell anemia offered protection against malaria. We know now People who is a carrier for the trait is less likely to get malaria
Under low oxygen conditions is that potassium leaks out of HbS-containing cells. The parasite needs high potassium levels to develop. This may be the reason the parasite fails to thrive in red blood containing Hb S.
Obgbanges In a West African tribe, children who died soon after birth were called "ogbanjes" children who come and go. The tribe believed that an evil spirit was trying to be born into a family with ogbanje children, and the babies bravely died to save the rest of the family from the demon
S YMPTOMS Attacks of abdominal pain Bone pain Breathlessness Delayed growth and puberty Fatigue Fever Paleness Rapid heart rate Ulcers on the lower legs (in adolescents and adults) Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)
Treatments There is no official cure for Sickle Cell Anemia but there are treatments to control the symptoms Blood Transfusion : increases the number of normal red blood cell and can be used to treat spleen enlargement in kids before it becomes threatening. Regular transfusion reduces recurring strokes in children. Oral Antibiotics : Receiving oral penicillin twice a day beginning at 2 months and continuing until the child is at least 5 years old can prevent pneumococcal infection and early death
Treatment Continued Hydroxyuruea : medicine that helps reduce the number of pain episodes. Proper hygiene, nutrition, bed rest, protection against infections, and avoding too much stress contributes in preventing complication The first effective drug treatment for adults with severe sickle cell anemia was reported in early 1995, when a study conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute showed that daily doses of the hydroxyurea reduced the frequency of painful crises and acute chest syndrome. Patients taking the drug needed fewer blood transfusions.
Life with Sickle Cell Anemia People with Sickle Cells can lead a relatively normal life if they maintain good health “With a sickle cell crisis, there’s a lot of pain, unbelievable pain. It’s like a jackhammer on your back, basically. Imagine that kind of pain throughout your whole body. Sometimes there’s pain in your joints, in the abdominal area, in your head, in your chest. Sometimes it’s all over at one time."
Coping Talking to someone: Finding a support group for families in your area. Talking to people who are dealing with the same issues can help Pain Control: Although medication help the pain, it does not take all of it away. Different techniques work for different people, but it might be worth trying heating pads, hot baths, massages or physical therapy. Parents: learning as much as possible about the disease
Tionne “T-Boz” Watkins, known for being a member of TLC was diagnosed at age 7 and has been in and out of hospitals since.
Be Sickle Smart, Ask About Iron Tikki Barber is a retired NFL running back Larenz Tate an actor Too much iron causes damage to major organs such as the heat and liver