Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Creating A New Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5: Creating A New Government The Big Picture: The Articles of Confederation, under which the thirteen colonies had united to win independence, proved insufficient to govern the new nation. Delegates from 12 states met at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and fashioned a newer, stronger form of government, which has endured for more than 200 years.
2Chapter 5 Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Main Idea: In order to carry on the war and build a new nation, Americans had to create a framework of government, but their first attempt had many weaknesses.
3The American Republic New State Governments Republican Motherhood During the war, all 13 colonies wrote state constitutions that included rights like representative government, rule of law, limits on gov’t power, and individual libertiesAll of the constitutions also set up three branches: legislative: wrote laws; executive: (governor) carried out laws; judicial: interpreted lawsThe elected legislature held the most powerThey all also agreed on republicanism: rule with consent of the governed (i.e. elected officials)Republican MotherhoodWomen had played a significant role in the war, running farms and businesses, collecting supplies, and being politically active in boycotts and protestsWomen were viewed as the first teachers for their children in ideas of civic virtue and responsibilityRepublican motherhood encouraged women to raise their children to be patriotic; to that end, they were encouraged to learn to read and write (only for upper class)
4A New National Government The Articles of ConfederationThe states realized they needed a central government to conduct the war and make alliances with foreign nations1776: John Dickinson heads a committee to create a new national governmentArticles of Confederation was adopted November 1777 but was not official until March 1781 when the last of the 13 states ratified itPowers of the New GovernmentStates retained most of the powerThe central government had only one branch, the Continental Congress where every state had one vote regardless of populationIt did have the power to negotiate with foreign nation and Native American tribesIt had the power to borrow and coin money; it could also establish an army and declare war
5The Confederation Faces Problems Financial ProblemsHard to pass laws because 9 of 13 states had to agree (took a unanimous vote to amend the Articles)They did not have the power to collect taxes to repay war debtCongress asked states for money but didn’t receive nearly enough to pay debt and run the governmentProblems with the StatesStates often acted against each other, refusing to honor contracts and printing their own moneyWith no national court system, there was no way to mediate conflicts between states or enforcing laws if criminals crossed state linesProblems with Foreign NationsBecause it was weak, Congress could not address British occupation of forts it had agreed to abandonThey also couldn’t negotiate with Spain to use the Mississippi River vital for tradeEconomic ProblemsTrade in New England collapsed after the war (Britain was its primary trading partner) because they had to pay high fees to continue tradingThe Southern indigo and naval stores industries were also hurtAll paper money issued during the war was practically worthless and states often demanded taxes be paid in gold, which many did not had, leading to high numbers in debtors prison
6The Northwest Territory There were two major successes of the Articles of ConfederationThe new nation had a large tract of western land that was not controlled by any stateLand Ordinance of 1785: set up a plan to survey, divide, and sell land in the Northwest TerritoryNorthwest Ordinance of 1787: created a system for the formation of new states; granted settlers religious freedom and civil rights and banned slavery in the territory5,000 men territory; 60,000 men write a constitution and apply to be a state
7Chapter 5 Section 2: Drafting the Constitution Main Idea: The Constitutional Convention tried to write a document that would address the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and make compromises between large and small states and between the North and South.
8The Constitutional Convention Shays’ RebellionHigh taxes in MA that had to be paid in gold led many farmers in western MA to loose their farms or be thrown in debtors prisonSept 1786: Daniel Shays leads farmers east to shut down the courts that were putting people in prisonWhile it was put down, it alarmed many across the nation because the federal government was powerlessThey agreed to meet in Philadelphia, May to amend the Articles of ConfederationA historic meetingDelegates from every state but RI attended; each state had one vote and they agreed to keep their meetings secretAll decisions would be made by simple majorityControversial PlansAll delegates were well-educated, wealthy, white men Washington was chosen to leadThey quickly decided to form a new government rather and amend the old oneTwo plans were introduced:Virginia Plan: introduced by Edmund RandolphGov’t would have 3 branches with a bicameral legislature; both houses would base representation population; lower house would vote on upper houseNew Jersey Plan: addressed concerns of small statesProposed a unicameral legislature with equal representationAlso wanted a ‘plural executive’- 2-3 top executives chosen by Congress
9Compromises at the Convention The Great CompromiseAfter several days of argument over the two plans, Roger Sherman proposed what was called the Connecticut Compromise or the Great Compromise: a bicameral legislature with the lower house based on population and the upper house having 2 members per stateOther CompromisesThree-Fifths Compromise: slave states wanted to count slaves when determining population for representation, free states did not; they agreed to count 3 of every 5 slaves; they also agreed to end the slave trade after 20 years and return runaway slaves
10Checks and BalancesDelegates agreed on a single executive (president) selected by electors chosen by state legislaturesThe final document also included checks and balances to keep any one branch from dominating over the other twoIt was signed September 17, 1787 and went to the states for ratification
11Chapter 5 Section 3: Ratifying the Constitution Main Idea: Federalists and Antifederalists struggled over the principles of the new Constitution. But the promise of adding a Bill of Rights brought about ratification.
12Federalists and Antifederalists When the Constitution was published, the public was shocked and angry (delegates had been sent to amend, not re-write, the government)Supporters of the new constitution were called FederalistsThey were led by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton and argued this new government was strong enough to survive and included checks on abuses of powerThose against the constitution were called AntifederalistsThey were led by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry and worried that the new government was too strong and would be no better than being under a monarchy in BritainEssays arguing both positions circulated widely among the statesThe major demand of Antifederalists was the inclusion of a Bill of Rights
13Adding a Bill of RightsFederalists were better organized than the Antifederalists and began organizing state conventions- Delaware was the first to ratify the Constitution on Dec 7, 1787Within 2 weeks, PA, NJ, GA, and CT ratified; ratification was much harder in MA, where their vote included a demand for a bill of rightsGradually the other states joined, although NC and RI ratified after the first Congress went into session (only 9 were required to make it law)The first goal of the new Congress was to amend the Constitution to add a Bill of RightsMost of these amendments addressed individual rights (free speech, due process, etc.) and the final one addressed rights of the states