Aims: Explain what the word ‘hyperinflation’ means. Identify the effects of the 1923 hyperinflation.
Inflation Inflation is when there is a general rise in prices – this causes the value of money to fall. The inflation rate in a country is usually measured on a yearly basis. Hyperinflation is when prices rise rapidly in a short space of time.
The Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to pay for all the damage caused during the war. This was known as Reparations. In 1921 the amount was fixed at £6,600 million. This would take 66 years to play. In 1922 the Germans did not make their reparations payments. At the beginning of 1923 they announced that they couldn’t afford to pay any more.
The Invasion of the Ruhr The French and Belgians decided to take what was owed to them by force. In January 1923, 60,000 French and Belgian soldiers marched into the Ruhr. The Ruhr was a rich industrial area full of coalmines and factories. The German government ordered its workers in the Ruhr to go on strike. This was called the policy of ‘Passive Resistance’. Around 150,000 people were thrown out of their homes as a punishment.
Hyperinflation 1923 Germany cannot afford to pay reparations French and Belgian troops invade the Ruhr Government orders the workers to go on strike – ‘passive resistance’. Government prints money to pay the workers in the Ruhr The workers began to spend money quickly – shopkeepers put prices up Prices were rising so fast across Germany - hyperinflation Workers were paid twice a day and money became virtually worthless Government calls off passive resistance and prints a new currency - Retenmark
Who Was Adolf Hitler? Aim: Identify the key events in the early years of Hitler’s life. Adolf Hitler is one of the most infamous men in history. To understand how he became leader of Germany you must first understand his background. What do you know about Hitler so far?
Adolf Hitler’s Early Life 1889-1919 1889 1903 19051918 1914 1913 1906 1907 1919 Beside each date write a brief sentence explaining what happened in each year.
Adolf Hitler – His Early Life 1889 – Born in Brunau, Austria 1903 – Father died 1905 – Failed exams and left school 1906 – Mother died 1907 – Went to Vienna, failed exams for Art School, lived on the streets 1913 – Left Austria to avoid military service 1914 – Joined German army when war broke out. Won six medals for bravery 1918 – In hospital when the war ended. 1919 – Worked for the government as an army spy investigating new political groups.
Who Was Adolf Hitler? Hitler was a vicious racist who was filled with hatred from an early age. Hitler had a good family background and had led a perfectly normal life up to 1919. Hitler was a brave man who had had a tough life up to 1919.
The Nazi Party Aims: Identify the main beliefs of the Nazis. Examine how Hitler changed the party in the 1920s.
The Nazi Party After Hitler became the leader of the Nazis party he introduced a number of important changes: A new name – National Socialist German Workers’ Party – NSDAP or Nazis. The swastika became the party’s symbol. Hitler set up a private army – the Sturm Abteilung (SA).
The Twenty-Five Point Programme The Treaty of Versailles should be destroyed. The Government must provide jobs for everyone and everyone must work. There should be higher old age pensions. There should be a large army. There should be strong, tough central government for Germany, led by one man.
All Germans all over the world must be united under one leader All Jews and Communist, must be destroyed, as they are the cause of many of Germany’s problems including their loss in the Great War The Germans are a master race of super-humans called Aryans. The must have whatever land they need to breed and expand The Treaty of Versailles is unfair and too harsh. It must be ignored
The Munich Putsch 1923 When hyperinflation was at its worst, Hitler and the Nazi party tried to seize power in November 1923. He burst into a meeting at a Beer Hall in Munich and said he was going to take over Bavaria and then rest of Germany. The Nazis had 2000 supporters and the support of General Ludendorff. The next day armed police were sent in. 16 Nazis were killed, Hitler and Ludendorff were arrested and put on trial for treason.
The Outcome Hitler used his trial to his advantage – everything he said was reported in the press. This was the perfect opportunity to put across his views. Ludendorff was set free and Hitler was sent to prison for 5 years – he could have been executed!! Hitler served 9 months in prison. During this time he wrote a book called ‘Mein Kampf’ (My Struggle). He realised that a new strategy was needed – the Nazis would have to win peoples’ votes at elections in order to achieve power.