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Texan Independence Primary Source Activity

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1 Texan Independence Primary Source Activity
For Documents A-D answer the following questions (COMPLETE SENTENCES!): Who wrote it? (Name, Mexican or American, Date) According to this document, why did Texans decide to declare independence in 1836? Do you trust the perspective of this document? Why or why not? Conclusion: Based on all 4 documents, do you think the Texans were justified in declaring independence?

2 Texas & the Mexican-American War

3 Texas

4 Immigration to Texas Americans begin to expand and settle in Texas (Spanish Territory) Stephen Austin leads settlers Spanish accept settlers on three conditions 1. Convert to Catholicism 2. Become Mexican citizens 3. Outlaw Slavery

5 Stephen Austin

6 Expansion & Conflict in Texas
Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas? To help defend and develop the province economically Why did Americans want to settle in Texas? Abundant, cheap, fertile land with a small population

7 1835 30,000 Americans settle in Texas (outnumber Mexicans 6 to 1)
DO NOT observe Mexican laws

8 Texas Revolution ( )

9 Texas Revolution American colonists rebel
Declare the “Republic of Texas” Mexico declares war

10 What brought American settlers into conflict with the Mexican government?
They did not convert to Roman Catholicism (remained Protestants) & they ignored Mexico’s ban on slavery What happened at the Alamo? Texas rebelled against Mexican rule Santa Anna attacks the Alamo to put down the rebellion 12 days of fighting, Mexico wins, then kills every prisoner; “Remember the Alamo!”

11 The Alamo

12 “Remember the Alamo” Sam Houston

13 Mexican General/Dictator Antonio de Santa Anna


15 Texas as a “Nation”

16 Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas?
Northern Democrats did not want to add another big, powerful slave state

17 James K. Polk’s Platform
Pro Annexation of Texas and Oregon “54/40 or Fight” Campaign Slogan Expansionist Policies 4 nations claimed Oregon (Russia, USA, Spain, Britain) Supported Manifest Destiny

18 What promises did Polk make to help him win the election (of 1844)?
To make Northern Democrats happy, he promises to get all of Oregon from Great Britain or go to war; *“54-40 or Fight!”* 54 Line Why did Polk need to satisfy the interests of Northerners specifically?

19 What did Polk do that left many Northern Democrats feeling betrayed?
To avoid war with Great Britain, Polk compromised on Oregon in order to fight Mexico (British kept what became British Columbia)

20 Annexation of Texas (1845) 10 days after inauguration Polk annexes Texas “We have always owned it”


22 The Mexican American War
WHY? Land Hunger Annexation Mexico Insulted Manifest Destiny

23 Warm-up What factors influenced the decision for Texas to declare independence? Why would the US be hesitant to annex Texas? Why do Texans “remember the Alamo?” What was “54-40 or fight” about? Why did James K. Polk include the Oregon Territory as well as Texas in his land expansion policy?

24 The Border Dispute Polk moves the Texas border south to the Rio Grande (150 miles south of the original border) Offers Mexico $30 million for New Mexico and California (Mexico insulted) Mexico prepares for war


26 Outbreak Polk enforces the southern border with American troops
1846 – Mexican troops cross the Rio Grande 17 Americans Die Congress Declares War

27 General Zachary Taylor

28 Heroes of the War Many junior lieutenants of the War eventually become leaders in the next war. Leaders include: Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott Upcoming leaders include: Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Stonewall Jackson, George Meade, James Longstreet, etc.

29 Major Battles

30 What formally ended the Mexican-American War?
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexican Cession) US adds 1.2 million square miles Mexico was humiliated by the treaty, bitter toward US for many years

31 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)
Mexican Cession – Mexico cedes Texas (with Rio Grande Border), California and New Mexico USA pays $15 million for territories ½ of what Polk originally offered US gains land covering Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada and parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

32 How is this further contributing to
US added more territory with the Gadsden Purchase (1853) Bought from Mexico, consisted of the southern parts of Arizona & New Mexico Needed to run transcontinental RR How is this further contributing to Manifest Destiny?


34 What issue continued to divide the nation?
SLAVERY, and its expansion Whig Congressman David Wilmot proposes the Wilmot Proviso: Proposed law would ban slavery in all lands won from Mexico Law DID NOT pass Lands won from Mexico increased North/South tensions Proposed in Congress for 15 more years Why do you think the Wilmot Proviso didn’t pass?

35 Election of 1848 Gen. Zachary Taylor (Whig, LA) wins narrow election
*Last president to own slaves during his term

36 “Old Rough and Ready” *Dies after 16 months in office *Food Poisoning

37 Millard Fillmore


39 Wrap-up Questions What was the major reason for Texans rebelling against Mexico? What does “54/40 or fight” mean? What were the reasons for the Mexican-American War? How does the new territory addition affect the balance of power in the US? Reflection: Write 1 paragraph explaining how the Mexican-American War might affect us today and its lasting legacy.

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