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The Skeletal System: Structure, Function, and Diseases of the bones and joints of the bones and joints.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System: Structure, Function, and Diseases of the bones and joints of the bones and joints."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System: Structure, Function, and Diseases of the bones and joints of the bones and joints

2 Is this the correct anatomical position?

3 The Skeletal System Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle)  Divided into two divisions  Axial skeleton- skull, spinal column  Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle

4 Functions of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats  Blood cell formation

5 Bones of the Human Body Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The skeleton has 206 bones  Two basic types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Homogeneous  Spongy bone  Small needle-like pieces of bone  Many open spaces Figure 5.2b

6 Bones are classified by their shape: 1.Long- bones are longer than they are wide (femur, humerus) 2.Short- usually square in shape, cube like (carpals, tarsals) 3.Flat- flat, curved (skull, sternum, ribs) 4.Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis)

7 Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.1

8 Classification of Bones Slide 5.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Long bones  Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends  Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus

9 Classification of Bones Slide 5.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Short bones  Generally cube-shape  Contain mostly spongy bone  Examples: Carpals, tarsals

10 Classification of Bones Slide 5.5a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Flat bones  Thin and flattened  Usually curved  Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone  Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

11 Classification of Bones Slide 5.5b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Irregular bones  Irregular shape  Do not fit into other bone classification categories  Example: Vertebrae and hip

12 Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Slide 5.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Diaphysis  Shaft  Made of compact bone  Epiphysis  Expanded ends of long bones  Covered with dense bone  Internal structure is spongy bone Figure 5.2a

13 Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Periosteum  Outside covering of the diaphysis  Fibrous connective tissue membrane  Arteries  Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c

14 Structures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Articular cartilage  Covers surface of epiphyses  Hyaline cartilage  Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a

15 Types of Bone Cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium  Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

16 Changes in the Human Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage  During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone  Cartilage remains in isolated areas  Bridge of the nose  Parts of ribs  Joints

17 Long Bone Formation and Growth Slide 5.14a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.4a

18 Repair of Bone Fractures Slide 5.18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Hematoma (blood clot) is formed  Break is splinted by fibrocartilage  forms a callus (chondroblasts, other cells, and vessels)  Callus is replaced by a bone (osteoblasts)  Bony callus is remodeled (osteoclasts)

19 Repair of Bone Fractures Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Fracture Repair  Hematoma formation (A)  Callus formation (B)  Bone replacement (C )  Bone remodeling (D) A CD B

20 Axial skeleton supports and protects organs of head, neck and trunk Axial skeleton: skull (cranium and facial bones) hyoid bone (anchors tongue and muscles associated with swallowing) vertebral column (vertebrae and disks) bony thorax (ribs and sternum)

21 Appendicular skeleton includes bones of limbs and bones that anchor them to the axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton: shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula) upper limbs (arms) pelvic girdle (sacrum, coccyx) lower limbs (legs) Articulation- where joints meet, connect, and are formed.

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24 The Axial Skeleton Slide 5.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Forms the longitudinal part of the body  Divided into three parts  Skull  Vertebral Column  Rib Cage

25 The Axial Skeleton Slide 5.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6

26 The Skull 8 sutured bones in cranium Facial bones: 13 sutured bones 1 mandible Cranium encases brain attachments for muscles sinuses

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28 Bones of the Skull Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11

29 Allows for growth

30 The Vertebral Column Slide 5.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs made of cartilage  The spine has a normal S curvature  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14

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32 Thoracic cage ribs thoracic Vertebrae sternum costal cartilages True ribs are directly attached to the sternum (first seven pairs) Three false ribs are joined to the 7 th rib Two pairs of floating ribs

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34 Joints A joint, or articulation, is the place where two bones come together. Fibrous- Immovable:connect bones, no movement. (skull and pelvis). Cartilaginous- slightly movable, bones are attached by cartilage, a little movement (spine or ribs).ribs). Synovial- freely movable, much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones.

35 The Synovial Joint Slide 5.51 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.28

36 Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Slide 5.52a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29a–c

37 Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Slide 5.52b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29d–f

38 Types of synovial joints In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup- shaped ending on another bone. Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints. Examples: Shoulders and hips. Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints. Examples: Shoulders and hips. Hip

39 Types of synovial joints Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate. These joints only allow rotation. Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate. These joints only allow rotation. Examples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head. Axis Atlas

40 Types of synovial joints In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation. Examples: The thumb is the only one. In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation. Examples: The thumb is the only one. Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement. Examples: The knee and elbow. Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement. Examples: The knee and elbow. Elbow

41 Types of Joints Hinge- A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee)

42 Ball and Socket- A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder)

43 Gliding- In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and mid- tarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet)

44 Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb)


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