6Bones are classified by their shape: Long- bones are longer than they are wide (femur, humerus)Short- usually square in shape, cube like (carpals, tarsals)Flat- flat, curved (skull, sternum, ribs)Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis)
20Axial skeleton supports and protects organs of head, neck and trunk skull (cranium and facial bones)hyoid bone (anchors tongue and muscles associated with swallowing)vertebral column (vertebrae and disks)bony thorax (ribs and sternum)
21Appendicular skeleton includes bones of limbs and bones that anchor them to the axial skeleton shoulder girdle (clavicle, scapula)upper limbs (arms)pelvic girdle (sacrum, coccyx)lower limbs (legs)Articulation- where joints meet, connect, and are formed.
34JointsA joint, or articulation, is the place where two bones come together.Fibrous- Immovable:connect bones, no movement. (skull and pelvis).Cartilaginous- slightly movable, bones are attached by cartilage, a little movement (spine or ribs).Synovial- freely movable, much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones.
38Types of synovial joints In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone.Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints.Examples: Shoulders and hips.HipDescribe ball and socket joints at the hip and shoulder. Discuss the movements possible at these joints. How do they help during sport?
39Types of synovial joints Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate.These joints only allow rotation.AtlasExamples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head.Axis
40Types of synovial joints In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation.Examples: The thumb is the only one.Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement.Examples: The knee and elbow.Elbow
41Types of JointsHinge- A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee)
42Ball and Socket- A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder)
43Gliding- In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other Gliding- In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and mid-tarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet)
44Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb)