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Joints Articulations. Functions Hold the bones together securely Give the rigid skeleton mobility.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints Articulations. Functions Hold the bones together securely Give the rigid skeleton mobility."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints Articulations

2 Functions Hold the bones together securely Give the rigid skeleton mobility

3 Joint Classification According to “Function” Synarthroses – immovable joints Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints Diarthroses – freely movable joints

4 Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial – freely movable Joint Classification According to “Structure”

5 Fibrous Joints Generally immovable Fibrous tissue Skull sutures Syndesmoses – – longer than the fibers found in sutures – more “give”

6 Cartilaginous Joints Bone ends connected by cartilage Slightly movable (amphiarthrotic) – Pubic symphysis – Intervertebral joints Immovable (synarthrotic) – Epiphyseal plates of growing long bones

7 Synovial Joints Articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. Has four distinguishing features – Articular cartilage – Fibrous articular capsule – Joint cavity – Reinforcing ligaments

8 Synovial Joint Features

9 Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape Plane joint Hinge joint (uniaxial) Pivot joint Condyloid joint (biaxial) Saddle joint Ball-and-socket joint (multiaxial)

10 Plane Joint Articular surfaces are flat Short slipping or sliding movements Intercarpal and intertarsal joints

11 Hinge Joint Cylindrical end of one bone fits into a trough- shaped surface on another bone Angular movement in one plane

12 Pivot Joint Rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone. Rotating bone turns around its long axis uniaxial

13 Condyloid Joint Egg-shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another. Side to side; back and forth motions

14 Saddle Joint Articular surfaces have both convex and concave areas. Biaxial Same motion as condyloid joints

15 Ball-and-Socket Joint Spherical head fits in a round socket. Allow movement in all axis.

16 Inflammatory Disorders of Joints

17 Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae “water on the knee” Falling on your knee

18 Sprain Excessive stretching or tearing of ligaments and tendons Poor blood supply therefore slow healing process

19 Arthritis Symptoms – Pain – Stiffness – Swelling of the joint Chronic Types – Osteoarthritis (OA) – Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – Gouty arthritis (gout)

20 Osteoarthritis (OA) “wear-and-tear” arthritis Softening, fraying, and breaking down of articular cartilage Exposed bone thickens (bone spurs) Bone spurs protrudes into joint cavity irreversible

21 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Autoimmune disease – body’s immune system attacks own tissue Unknown trigger – maybe viral or bacterial Cartilage destroyed forming scar tissue Scar tissue fuses (ankylosis) causing deformities

22 Rheumatoid Arthritis

23 Gouty Arthritis (Gout) Uric acid accumulates in the blood Needle-shaped crystals in soft tissues in joints Great toe Genetic

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