Presentation on theme: "Joints. Joints Joint (articulation, arthrosis): a point of contact between two bones The jxn. Between neighboring bones Joint Classifications: (3 types)"— Presentation transcript:
Joints Joint (articulation, arthrosis): a point of contact between two bones The jxn. Between neighboring bones Joint Classifications: (3 types) 1. Fibrous: bone-bone (skull sutures) No movement 2. Cartilaginous: bone-cartilage-bone 1 o : No movement (cranial base) 2 o : limited movement (V.C. & sternal angle)
3. Synovial: bone-space-bone free range of movement *most joints in the body* 4 rules: - space: synovial cavity - fluid: synovial fluid - membrane: synovial membrane - capsule & Lig.: fibrous capsule & supporting lig.
Types of Synovial Joints 6 types 1. Planar (plane): flat surfaces gliding movement i.e. intercarpal Js, 2. Hinge: convex concave surface angular (open & close) motion i.e. elbow interphalangeal
3. Pivot: pointed surface ring shape rotational movement i.e.atlanto-axial joint (as noting “NO”) radio-ulnar joint 4. Condyloid (ellipsoidal): oval bony projection fits into oval depression of another bone i.e.atlanto-occipital joint wrist joint
5. Saddle-shaped: saddle shaped surface as a sitting rider *modified condyloid joint i.e.trapezium & thumb metacarpal 6. Ball & Socket ball like surface cuplike depression circumduction i.e.shoulder joint hip joint
Arthritis Inflammation of the joints in which joints are swollen & painful 3 types 1. Osteoarthritis: degenerative joint disease in which cartilage is gradually lost due to continuous friction “wear & tear” - most common- affects large joints (knee & hip) 2. Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disease in which immune system of the body attacks its own tissues (joint cartilages) - usually bilateral- affects smaller joints first
3. Gouty arthritis (GOUT):النقرص deposition of sodium urate crystals in the joints which produces acute pain & swelling of the joint due to accumulation of uric acid in blood uric acid + Na sodium urate salt crystals *most often: feet & hands “Disease of Kings”
Selected Joints of The Body -Shoulder joint (Glenohumeral) -Hip joint -Knee joint
Anatomy of The Joints 1. What is the type of the joint? 2. What are the articular surfaces of the joint? 3. What are the supporting ligaments? 4. What kind of movement is available? 5. Any special characteristics of the joint?
Movements: Circumduction Includes?? Characteristics: The fibrous capsule is Weak inferiorly due to: 1. penetrated inferiorly by tendon of long head of triceps 2. Joint is surrounded (stabilized) by group of muscles called: Rotator Cuff muscles *except inferiorly