2Articulation- A point of contact between two bones or between a bone and cartilage Can produce a wide variety of motionsArthrology: The study of the structure of jointsArthrologist- help design joint replacementsKinesiology: The study of the movement of jointsLearn how a joint goes through a range of motions.The field of study for physical/occupational therapists.
3Functional Classifications of Joints This is the easy way to classify joints.Synarthroses:The group of joints that produce no movement.Amphiarthroses:Slightly moveable joints- little separation between bonesDiarthroses:Fully moveable joints
4Structural Classifications of Joints This is a more difficult way to classify joints.Fibrous joints: lack a synovial cavity and the articulating bones are held together by a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue.Bones are in direct contact with one another.Bones are joined in a way that no movement is produced.This is a type of synarthrosisBe careful on the on-line quiz- If the question asks for structural classification, then don’t put the functional classification.
5Types of Fibrous Joints Suture joints: fibrous joints in which the bones forming the joint are in direct contact.Found between bones of the cranium.Neighboring bones have “saw-like” projections to help lock the bones together producing a very strong joint.Joints are actually stronger than the bone itself!Synostosis: A joint in which there is a complete fusion of the two separate bones into one bone.The saw-like projections completely ossifyIf this happens too quickly in the skull, it could affect brain development.
7Types of Fibrous Joints Syndesmoses: fibrous joints in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense iregular connective tissue than in a suture.Found between the bones of the forearm (radius and ulna) and the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula).Bones are held in place by the interosseus membrane which prevents bones from separating when weight is applied.
9Types of Fibrous Joints Gomphoses: fibrous joints in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket.Hold the teeth in placeA thin piece of connective tissue called the periodontal ligament helps secure the root of a tooth into the socket of the upper/lower jaw.
11Cartilaginous JointsLack a synovial cavity and the articulating bones are tightly connected by either hyaline cartilage or by fibrocartilage.Two Types:Synchondroses: cartilaginous joints in which the connecting material is hyaline cartilage.Often found between the ends (epiphyses) and shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone.Epiphyseal plateOnce it gets turned into bone, it could be considered a fibrous joint.Allow the ends of bones to shift slightly to compensate for muscle development.
13Cartilaginous JointsSymphyses: cartilaginous joints in which the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones.This is found between the bones of the spine and hipAllows bones to shift slightly during movementThe hormone relaxin is secreted during childbirth to soften the connective tissue.
15Synovial Joints- have a synovial cavity This is the most complex of the 3 structural joints.These are forms of diarthroses.Synovial cavity: a space between the articulating bones.Filled with synovial fluidThis space allows joints to move freely.Synovial capsule: surround a synovial joint, encloses a synovial joint and unites the articulating bones.Combination of fibrous connective tissue and the synovial membrane.
17Layers of the Synovial Capsule Fibrous capsule: a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones.Functions to help hold the articulating bones together and limits the range of motion for that joint (to limit injury).Synovial membrane: a layer of areolar connective tissue that contains elastic fibers.Functions to produce and secrete synovial fluid that acts as an additional shock absorber.Synovial fluid is slippery and viscous.
186 Types of Synovial Joints Planar: The articulating surfaces of the bones are flat or lightly curved.Also called a gliding joint.Found between carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.Sliding movement to even the distribution of forces to the arms and legs.
206 Types of Synovial Joints Hinge: The convex articulating surface of one bone fits into the concave articulating surface of another bone.Found at the elbow and knee.Opening and closing movements in 1 plane.Shape of the joint limits movement so this is the easiest synovial joint to damage.
226 Types of Synovial Joints Pivot: The rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone and partly by a ligament.Found between the 1st 2 vertebrae (atlas and axis) and the bones of the forearm (radius and ulna)Moves by the rotation of 1 bones around its own long axis. (Rotation of the radius to turn the palm over)
246 Types of Synovial Joints Condyloid: The convex, oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone.Found at the following:Between the head and 1st vertebraBetween the skull and lower jawBetween the forearm and wristBetween the palm and fingersBetween the lower leg and ankleof the radius to turn the palm over)Moves front to back and side to side like in chewing
266 Types of Synovial Joints Saddle: the articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped and the articular surface of the other bone fits into the saddle.Found at the base of each thumbMoves front to back, side to side, circular and opposing the pinky
286 Types of Synovial Joints Ball and socket: the ball-like articulating surface of one bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone.Found at the shoulder and hipProvides the most versatile movement- front to back, side to side, circular, and rotating