12Secondary Survey Vital signs Skin appearance Head and neck Eye Chest AbdomenBackExtremitiesMedical alert symbols
13Fracture An injury in which the tissue of a bone is disrupted If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or breakAn open fracture (in which bone breaks the skin) can be easily infected
18Fracture First AidCheck the victims airway, breathing and circulation.Keep the victim still and provide assurance.If the skin is broken by a fractured bone, take steps to prevent infection.Splint or sling the injury in the position you found it.Be sure to immobilize the joint above and below the injury.Check circulation (Pulse or capillary refill)Get medical help.
19Neck or Back injuries Do not move the patient. Check for airway, breathing, and circulation.If there is neck pain present, manually stabilize the patients head.Call for medical assistance.
20Spinal Injuries Manually stabilize the head Call 911 Do not allow the patient to move.
22Sprains and strainsLigaments and cartilage can be damaged by a fall or other injury.Signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and deformityIsolate the extremity and place cold dressings.Seek medical attention if severe
25HemorrhageCapillary (oozing bright red): seen in minor scrapes and shallow cuts to the skin.Venous (oozing dark red): Can be profuseArterial (spurting): pulsating as the heart beats
26Lacerations and Abrasions Laceration: jagged cutsAbrasion: scratches and scrapesAvulsion: tearing off of large flaps of skinIncision: smooth cutsPuncture: a penetrating woundCrush injuries: a body part has been crushed often rupturing soft tissues and internal organs.
27Wound care Expose the wound Control bleeding Prevent further contaminationKeep the patient lying stillReassure the patientCare for shock
28BleedingInternal: Often not noted until signs and symptoms of shock are presentExternal: visible externally in the for of lacerations, abrasions, puncture wounds, avulsions
29Treatment of Bleeding Wear Protective Equipment Apply Direct Pressure Apply Pressure DressingPressure PointsElevate extremityTourniquetSplint the extremity
30Bandaging Latex gloves Direct pressure 4 x 4 gauze dressings Roller gauzePressure pointElevation
31Impaled ObjectsDo not remove objectSplint the object in place
32Nosebleeds Pinch nose Lean forward Apply cold pack to back of neck Seek medical attention if the bleed does not subside
33AmputationsCutting or tearing off of the fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms or legs.
34Treatment of Amputations Control bleeding with direct pressureWrap or bag the amputated part in plasticKeep amputated part cool
36ShockOccurs when there is a failure of the circulatory system t provide enough blood to all the vital parts of the body.Unless action is taken, shock can lead to death
37Shock Signs and Symptoms WeaknessNauseaThirstDizzinessRestlessness and fear
38Shock signs and symptoms Rapid and shallow breathingRapid and weak pulsePale, cool, and clammy skindisoriented
39Eye injuries Do not remove any impaled objects Do not attempt to put the eye back in its socketDo not apply direct pressure on a cut eyeball
40Eye injuries Pour water into the eyes Direct the patient to look side to sideFlush for 20 minutesBandage both eyes to restrict eye movementSeek medical attention
41Shock Treatment Have the patient lie down and rest Deep the airway openControl external bleedingKeep warmElevate the lower extremities 12 inchesCall 911
42Burns First degree burn: Only the outer layer of the skin is burned. Second degree burn: first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is damaged.Third degree burn: all the layers of the skin are damaged.
43Burns Stop the burning process Call 911 Maintain an open airway Cover the burn with a loose sterile dressingGive special care to fingers and toes. Insert sterile pads between each finger or toe.Do not moisten the dressings unless the burn involves less than 9 percent of the surface areaProvide care for shock
44Loss of Consciousness Usually a self correcting form of mild shock Patient may be injured in a fall due to faintingMay be a warning sign of a serious condition
45Loss of Consciousness Treatment Prevent the person from fainting by lowering the head.Aid them to the groundElevate legs 8-12 inchesCall 911
47Hypothermia Lowering of the body temperature below 95 degrees Weather does not have to be below freezing for hypothermia to occurElderly and infants are at higher riskPeople with other illnesses and injuries are susceptible to hypothermia
48Loss of Body HeatConduction: Transfer of heat from body to colder objectConvection: transfer of heat through circulating airEvaporation: Cooling of body through sweatingRadiation: Loss of heat directly into a colder environmentRespirations: Body heat lost during breathing.
50Hypothermia Treatment Remove patient from cold environment.Do not allow patient to walk.Remove any wet clothing and cover with blanketsDo not massage extremities.Warm if possible.Seek medical attention
51Frostbite or Frostnip Remove the patient from further exposure Handle the injured part gently.Remove any wet or restricting clothingNever attempt rewarming if there is chance the part may freeze again
52Heat related injuriesHeat exhaustionHeat StrokeHeat Cramps
53Heat exhaustionOnset while working hard or exercising in hot environment.In elderly and young, onset may occur while at rest in hot, humid, and poorly ventilated areas.Cold, clammy skin.Dry tongue and thirst.
54Heat Exhaustion Signs and Symptoms Dizziness, weakness, or faintingNormal or slightly elevated body temperatureNormal or increased pulse
55Heat exhaustion treatment Remove patient from hot environmentLoosen any tight clothingLie victim down and elevate legsFan to coolIf conscious, give water slowly.
56Heat Stroke Hot, dry, flushed skin Change in behavior leading to unresponsivenessPulse rate is rapid, then slow.Death can occur if the patient is not treated rapidly
57Heat stroke treatment Call 911 Move patient out of the hot environment Provide air conditioning at high settingRemove the patients clothingApply moist dressingsCover the patient with wet towels or sheetsFan aggressively
58Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms Remove from hot environment Rest the cramping muscleReplace fluids by mouthIf cramps do not go away, seek medical assistance
59Poisonings Call poison control center Call 911 Identify poison Supportive care
60Drug Overdose Call 911 Provide life support measures if required Monitor respirationsProtect from further harmCare for shockReassure patient
61Bites, stings, and poisonous plants Noticeable sting or bite to the skinPuncture marks to the skinPain at the wound siteItchingWeakness, dizziness, or collapseHeadacheNauseaAllergy shock
62Bites and Stings treatment Provide care for shockScraping away bee and wasp stingers with flat edgeKeep the extremity below the level of the heart.Call 911
63Snakebites Noticeable bite to the skin Pain and swelling in the area Rapid pulse and labored breathingWeaknessVision problemsNausea and vomiting
64Snakebite Treatment Call 911 Keep the patient calm and lying down Remove rings, bracelets and other constricting itemsKeep extremity immobilizedKeep below the level of the heartProvide care for shock.
65Handling and transporting of injured persons One person liftTwo person liftBlanket pull
66Altered Mental Status Underlying causes Diabetes: Blood sugar too low or too highPoisoningsDrug overdosesEnvironmental emergencies
67First Aid Kits Gauze pads (4 x 4) Two large gauze pads (8 x 10) Band-aidsGauze roller bandageTwo triangular bandagesWound cleaning agentSplintScissorsOne blanketTweezersAdhesive tapeLatex glovesResuscitation devicesTwo elastic wrapsEmergency requests