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Los Alamos Fire Department Basic First Aid. First Aid  The initial care of the sick and injured.

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Presentation on theme: "Los Alamos Fire Department Basic First Aid. First Aid  The initial care of the sick and injured."— Presentation transcript:

1 Los Alamos Fire Department Basic First Aid

2 First Aid  The initial care of the sick and injured

3 Scene Assessment  Scene Safety  Is the scene safe?  Mechanism of Injury  Triage  Additional resources

4 Primary survey  Airway  Breathing  Circulation  Life Threats  History  Secondary Survey

5 Level of Consciousness  Is the patient conscious?  Gently shake the patient  If unconscious place in the rescue position

6 Rescue position Place patient on the left side

7 Airway  Is the airway open and clear?  Are there noisy breath sounds  Open and Clear the airway  Consider neck injury

8 Airway Open airway Closed Airway Airway obstruction

9 Breathing  Look  Listen  Feel

10 Circulation  Is there a strong carotid pulse?  Is it strong?  Is it regular?  If no pulse present start CPR.

11 Life Threats  Expose  Control bleeding

12 Secondary Survey  Vital signs  Skin appearance  Head and neck  Eye  Chest  Abdomen  Back  Extremities  Medical alert symbols

13 Fracture  An injury in which the tissue of a bone is disrupted  If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break  An open fracture (in which bone breaks the skin) can be easily infected


15 Fracture Symptoms  Visible out of place joint or limb  Limitation of movement  Swelling and intense pain  Numbness and tingling  Paleness and no pulse  Pain on weight bearing

16 Fracture Treatment  Do not move the victim unless the injured area is immobilized  Do not move a victim with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg injure unless it is absolutely necessary

17 Sling and Swathe

18 Fracture First Aid  Check the victims airway, breathing and circulation.  Keep the victim still and provide assurance.  If the skin is broken by a fractured bone, take steps to prevent infection.  Splint or sling the injury in the position you found it.  Be sure to immobilize the joint above and below the injury.  Check circulation (Pulse or capillary refill)  Get medical help.

19 Neck or Back injuries  Do not move the patient.  Check for airway, breathing, and circulation.  If there is neck pain present, manually stabilize the patients head.  Call for medical assistance.

20 Spinal Injuries Manually stabilize the head Call 911 Do not allow the patient to move.

21 Sprains

22 Sprains and strains  Ligaments and cartilage can be damaged by a fall or other injury.  Signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and deformity  Isolate the extremity and place cold dressings.  Seek medical attention if severe

23 Sprains and Strains

24 Splinting Skill Stations

25 Hemorrhage  Capillary (oozing bright red): seen in minor scrapes and shallow cuts to the skin.  Venous (oozing dark red): Can be profuse  Arterial (spurting): pulsating as the heart beats

26 Lacerations and Abrasions  Laceration: jagged cuts  Abrasion: scratches and scrapes  Avulsion: tearing off of large flaps of skin  Incision: smooth cuts  Puncture: a penetrating wound  Crush injuries: a body part has been crushed often rupturing soft tissues and internal organs.

27 Wound care  Expose the wound  Control bleeding  Prevent further contamination  Keep the patient lying still  Reassure the patient  Care for shock

28 Bleeding  Internal: Often not noted until signs and symptoms of shock are present  External: visible externally in the for of lacerations, abrasions, puncture wounds, avulsions

29 Treatment of Bleeding  Wear Protective Equipment  Apply Direct Pressure  Apply Pressure Dressing  Pressure Points  Elevate extremity  Tourniquet  Splint the extremity

30 Bandaging  Latex gloves  Direct pressure  4 x 4 gauze dressings  Roller gauze  Pressure point  Elevation

31 Impaled Objects Do not remove object Splint the object in place

32 Nosebleeds  Pinch nose  Lean forward  Apply cold pack to back of neck  Seek medical attention if the bleed does not subside

33 Amputations  Cutting or tearing off of the fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms or legs.

34 Treatment of Amputations  Control bleeding with direct pressure  Wrap or bag the amputated part in plastic  Keep amputated part cool

35 Bandaging Skill Stations

36 Shock  Occurs when there is a failure of the circulatory system t provide enough blood to all the vital parts of the body.  Unless action is taken, shock can lead to death

37 Shock Signs and Symptoms  Weakness  Nausea  Thirst  Dizziness  Restlessness and fear

38 Shock signs and symptoms  Rapid and shallow breathing  Rapid and weak pulse  Pale, cool, and clammy skin  disoriented

39 Eye injuries  Do not remove any impaled objects  Do not attempt to put the eye back in its socket  Do not apply direct pressure on a cut eyeball

40 Eye injuries  Pour water into the eyes  Direct the patient to look side to side  Flush for 20 minutes  Bandage both eyes to restrict eye movement  Seek medical attention

41 Shock Treatment  Have the patient lie down and rest  Deep the airway open  Control external bleeding  Keep warm  Elevate the lower extremities 12 inches  Call 911

42 Burns  First degree burn: Only the outer layer of the skin is burned.  Second degree burn: first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is damaged.  Third degree burn: all the layers of the skin are damaged.

43 Burns  Stop the burning process  Call 911  Maintain an open airway  Cover the burn with a loose sterile dressing  Give special care to fingers and toes. Insert sterile pads between each finger or toe.  Do not moisten the dressings unless the burn involves less than 9 percent of the surface area  Provide care for shock

44 Loss of Consciousness  Usually a self correcting form of mild shock  Patient may be injured in a fall due to fainting  May be a warning sign of a serious condition

45 Loss of Consciousness Treatment  Prevent the person from fainting by lowering the head.  Aid them to the ground  Elevate legs 8-12 inches  Call 911

46 Cold Weather Emergencies  Hypothermia  Frostbite  Frostnip

47 Hypothermia  Lowering of the body temperature below 95 degrees  Weather does not have to be below freezing for hypothermia to occur  Elderly and infants are at higher risk  People with other illnesses and injuries are susceptible to hypothermia

48 Loss of Body Heat  Conduction: Transfer of heat from body to colder object  Convection: transfer of heat through circulating air  Evaporation: Cooling of body through sweating  Radiation: Loss of heat directly into a colder environment  Respirations: Body heat lost during breathing.

49 Hypothermia Signs and Symptoms  Shivering  Cold skin  Bluish skin  Slow pulse  Slow breathing  Confusion  Weak pulse  Sluggish pupils  Coma  No Shivering

50 Hypothermia Treatment  Remove patient from cold environment.  Do not allow patient to walk.  Remove any wet clothing and cover with blankets  Do not massage extremities.  Warm if possible.  Seek medical attention

51 Frostbite or Frostnip  Remove the patient from further exposure  Handle the injured part gently.  Remove any wet or restricting clothing  Never attempt rewarming if there is chance the part may freeze again

52 Heat related injuries  Heat exhaustion  Heat Stroke  Heat Cramps

53 Heat exhaustion  Onset while working hard or exercising in hot environment.  In elderly and young, onset may occur while at rest in hot, humid, and poorly ventilated areas.  Cold, clammy skin.  Dry tongue and thirst.

54 Heat Exhaustion Signs and Symptoms  Dizziness, weakness, or fainting  Normal or slightly elevated body temperature  Normal or increased pulse

55 Heat exhaustion treatment  Remove patient from hot environment  Loosen any tight clothing  Lie victim down and elevate legs  Fan to cool  If conscious, give water slowly.

56 Heat Stroke  Hot, dry, flushed skin  Change in behavior leading to unresponsiveness  Pulse rate is rapid, then slow.  Death can occur if the patient is not treated rapidly

57 Heat stroke treatment  Call 911  Move patient out of the hot environment  Provide air conditioning at high setting  Remove the patients clothing  Apply moist dressings  Cover the patient with wet towels or sheets  Fan aggressively

58 Heat Cramps  Painful muscle spasms  Remove from hot environment  Rest the cramping muscle  Replace fluids by mouth  If cramps do not go away, seek medical assistance

59 Poisonings  Call poison control center  Call 911  Identify poison  Supportive care

60 Drug Overdose  Call 911  Provide life support measures if required  Monitor respirations  Protect from further harm  Care for shock  Reassure patient

61 Bites, stings, and poisonous plants  Noticeable sting or bite to the skin  Puncture marks to the skin  Pain at the wound site  Itching  Weakness, dizziness, or collapse  Headache  Nausea  Allergy shock

62 Bites and Stings treatment  Provide care for shock  Scraping away bee and wasp stingers with flat edge  Keep the extremity below the level of the heart.  Call 911

63 Snakebites  Noticeable bite to the skin  Pain and swelling in the area  Rapid pulse and labored breathing  Weakness  Vision problems  Nausea and vomiting

64 Snakebite Treatment  Call 911  Keep the patient calm and lying down  Remove rings, bracelets and other constricting items  Keep extremity immobilized  Keep below the level of the heart  Provide care for shock.

65 Handling and transporting of injured persons  One person lift  Two person lift  Blanket pull

66 Altered Mental Status  Underlying causes  Diabetes: Blood sugar too low or too high  Poisonings  Drug overdoses  Environmental emergencies

67 First Aid Kits  Gauze pads (4 x 4)  Two large gauze pads (8 x 10)  Band-aids  Gauze roller bandage  Two triangular bandages  Wound cleaning agent  Splint  Scissors  One blanket  Tweezers  Adhesive tape  Latex gloves  Resuscitation devices  Two elastic wraps  Emergency requests

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