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Los Alamos Fire Department

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Presentation on theme: "Los Alamos Fire Department"— Presentation transcript:

1 Los Alamos Fire Department
Basic First Aid

2 First Aid The initial care of the sick and injured

3 Scene Assessment Scene Safety Is the scene safe? Mechanism of Injury
Triage Additional resources                                                                       

4 Primary survey Airway Breathing Circulation Life Threats History
Secondary Survey

5 Level of Consciousness
Is the patient conscious? Gently shake the patient If unconscious place in the rescue position                                                                       

6 Rescue position Place patient on the left side

7 Airway Is the airway open and clear? Are there noisy breath sounds
Open and Clear the airway Consider neck injury                                                                       

8 Airway                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Open airway Closed Airway Airway obstruction

9 Breathing Look Listen Feel                                                                       

10 Circulation Is there a strong carotid pulse? Is it strong?
Is it regular? If no pulse present start CPR.                                                                       

11 Life Threats Expose Control bleeding

12 Secondary Survey Vital signs Skin appearance Head and neck Eye Chest
Abdomen Back Extremities Medical alert symbols

13 Fracture An injury in which the tissue of a bone is disrupted
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break An open fracture (in which bone breaks the skin) can be easily infected


15 Fracture Symptoms Visible out of place joint or limb
Limitation of movement Swelling and intense pain Numbness and tingling Paleness and no pulse Pain on weight bearing

16 Fracture Treatment Do not move the victim unless the injured area is immobilized Do not move a victim with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg injure unless it is absolutely necessary

17 Sling and Swathe                                                                                                                                              

18 Fracture First Aid Check the victims airway, breathing and circulation. Keep the victim still and provide assurance. If the skin is broken by a fractured bone, take steps to prevent infection. Splint or sling the injury in the position you found it. Be sure to immobilize the joint above and below the injury. Check circulation (Pulse or capillary refill) Get medical help.

19 Neck or Back injuries Do not move the patient.
Check for airway, breathing, and circulation. If there is neck pain present, manually stabilize the patients head. Call for medical assistance.

20 Spinal Injuries Manually stabilize the head Call 911
Do not allow the patient to move.

21 Sprains

22 Sprains and strains Ligaments and cartilage can be damaged by a fall or other injury. Signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and deformity Isolate the extremity and place cold dressings. Seek medical attention if severe

23 Sprains and Strains

24 Splinting Skill Stations

25 Hemorrhage Capillary (oozing bright red): seen in minor scrapes and shallow cuts to the skin. Venous (oozing dark red): Can be profuse Arterial (spurting): pulsating as the heart beats

26 Lacerations and Abrasions
Laceration: jagged cuts Abrasion: scratches and scrapes Avulsion: tearing off of large flaps of skin Incision: smooth cuts Puncture: a penetrating wound Crush injuries: a body part has been crushed often rupturing soft tissues and internal organs.

27 Wound care Expose the wound Control bleeding
Prevent further contamination Keep the patient lying still Reassure the patient Care for shock

28 Bleeding Internal: Often not noted until signs and symptoms of shock are present External: visible externally in the for of lacerations, abrasions, puncture wounds, avulsions

29 Treatment of Bleeding Wear Protective Equipment Apply Direct Pressure
Apply Pressure Dressing Pressure Points Elevate extremity Tourniquet Splint the extremity

30 Bandaging Latex gloves Direct pressure 4 x 4 gauze dressings
Roller gauze Pressure point Elevation

31 Impaled Objects                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Do not remove object Splint the object in place

32 Nosebleeds Pinch nose Lean forward Apply cold pack to back of neck
Seek medical attention if the bleed does not subside                                                                       

33 Amputations Cutting or tearing off of the fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms or legs.

34 Treatment of Amputations
Control bleeding with direct pressure Wrap or bag the amputated part in plastic Keep amputated part cool

35 Bandaging Skill Stations

36 Shock Occurs when there is a failure of the circulatory system t provide enough blood to all the vital parts of the body. Unless action is taken, shock can lead to death

37 Shock Signs and Symptoms
Weakness Nausea Thirst Dizziness Restlessness and fear

38 Shock signs and symptoms
Rapid and shallow breathing Rapid and weak pulse Pale, cool, and clammy skin disoriented

39 Eye injuries Do not remove any impaled objects
Do not attempt to put the eye back in its socket Do not apply direct pressure on a cut eyeball

40 Eye injuries Pour water into the eyes
Direct the patient to look side to side Flush for 20 minutes Bandage both eyes to restrict eye movement Seek medical attention

41 Shock Treatment Have the patient lie down and rest
Deep the airway open Control external bleeding Keep warm Elevate the lower extremities 12 inches Call 911

42 Burns First degree burn: Only the outer layer of the skin is burned.
Second degree burn: first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is damaged. Third degree burn: all the layers of the skin are damaged.

43 Burns Stop the burning process Call 911 Maintain an open airway
Cover the burn with a loose sterile dressing Give special care to fingers and toes. Insert sterile pads between each finger or toe. Do not moisten the dressings unless the burn involves less than 9 percent of the surface area Provide care for shock

44 Loss of Consciousness Usually a self correcting form of mild shock
Patient may be injured in a fall due to fainting May be a warning sign of a serious condition

45 Loss of Consciousness Treatment
Prevent the person from fainting by lowering the head. Aid them to the ground Elevate legs 8-12 inches Call 911

46 Cold Weather Emergencies
Hypothermia Frostbite Frostnip

47 Hypothermia Lowering of the body temperature below 95 degrees
Weather does not have to be below freezing for hypothermia to occur Elderly and infants are at higher risk People with other illnesses and injuries are susceptible to hypothermia

48 Loss of Body Heat Conduction: Transfer of heat from body to colder object Convection: transfer of heat through circulating air Evaporation: Cooling of body through sweating Radiation: Loss of heat directly into a colder environment Respirations: Body heat lost during breathing.

49 Hypothermia Signs and Symptoms
Shivering Cold skin Bluish skin Slow pulse Slow breathing Confusion Weak pulse Sluggish pupils Coma No Shivering

50 Hypothermia Treatment
Remove patient from cold environment. Do not allow patient to walk. Remove any wet clothing and cover with blankets Do not massage extremities. Warm if possible. Seek medical attention

51 Frostbite or Frostnip Remove the patient from further exposure
Handle the injured part gently. Remove any wet or restricting clothing Never attempt rewarming if there is chance the part may freeze again

52 Heat related injuries Heat exhaustion Heat Stroke Heat Cramps

53 Heat exhaustion Onset while working hard or exercising in hot environment. In elderly and young, onset may occur while at rest in hot, humid, and poorly ventilated areas. Cold, clammy skin. Dry tongue and thirst.

54 Heat Exhaustion Signs and Symptoms
Dizziness, weakness, or fainting Normal or slightly elevated body temperature Normal or increased pulse

55 Heat exhaustion treatment
Remove patient from hot environment Loosen any tight clothing Lie victim down and elevate legs Fan to cool If conscious, give water slowly.

56 Heat Stroke Hot, dry, flushed skin
Change in behavior leading to unresponsiveness Pulse rate is rapid, then slow. Death can occur if the patient is not treated rapidly

57 Heat stroke treatment Call 911 Move patient out of the hot environment
Provide air conditioning at high setting Remove the patients clothing Apply moist dressings Cover the patient with wet towels or sheets Fan aggressively

58 Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms Remove from hot environment
Rest the cramping muscle Replace fluids by mouth If cramps do not go away, seek medical assistance

59 Poisonings Call poison control center Call 911 Identify poison
Supportive care

60 Drug Overdose Call 911 Provide life support measures if required
Monitor respirations Protect from further harm Care for shock Reassure patient

61 Bites, stings, and poisonous plants
Noticeable sting or bite to the skin Puncture marks to the skin Pain at the wound site Itching Weakness, dizziness, or collapse Headache Nausea Allergy shock

62 Bites and Stings treatment
Provide care for shock Scraping away bee and wasp stingers with flat edge Keep the extremity below the level of the heart. Call 911

63 Snakebites Noticeable bite to the skin Pain and swelling in the area
Rapid pulse and labored breathing Weakness Vision problems Nausea and vomiting

64 Snakebite Treatment Call 911 Keep the patient calm and lying down
Remove rings, bracelets and other constricting items Keep extremity immobilized Keep below the level of the heart Provide care for shock.

65 Handling and transporting of injured persons
One person lift Two person lift Blanket pull

66 Altered Mental Status Underlying causes
Diabetes: Blood sugar too low or too high Poisonings Drug overdoses Environmental emergencies

67 First Aid Kits Gauze pads (4 x 4) Two large gauze pads (8 x 10)
Band-aids Gauze roller bandage Two triangular bandages Wound cleaning agent Splint Scissors One blanket Tweezers Adhesive tape Latex gloves Resuscitation devices Two elastic wraps Emergency requests

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