Secondary Survey Vital signs Skin appearance Head and neck Eye Chest Abdomen Back Extremities Medical alert symbols
Fracture An injury in which the tissue of a bone is disrupted If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break An open fracture (in which bone breaks the skin) can be easily infected
Fracture First Aid Check the victims airway, breathing and circulation. Keep the victim still and provide assurance. If the skin is broken by a fractured bone, take steps to prevent infection. Splint or sling the injury in the position you found it. Be sure to immobilize the joint above and below the injury. Check circulation (Pulse or capillary refill) Get medical help.
Neck or Back injuries Do not move the patient. Check for airway, breathing, and circulation. If there is neck pain present, manually stabilize the patients head. Call for medical assistance.
Spinal Injuries Manually stabilize the head Call 911 Do not allow the patient to move.
Sprains and strains Ligaments and cartilage can be damaged by a fall or other injury. Signs and symptoms include pain, swelling and deformity Isolate the extremity and place cold dressings. Seek medical attention if severe
Hemorrhage Capillary (oozing bright red): seen in minor scrapes and shallow cuts to the skin. Venous (oozing dark red): Can be profuse Arterial (spurting): pulsating as the heart beats
Lacerations and Abrasions Laceration: jagged cuts Abrasion: scratches and scrapes Avulsion: tearing off of large flaps of skin Incision: smooth cuts Puncture: a penetrating wound Crush injuries: a body part has been crushed often rupturing soft tissues and internal organs.
Wound care Expose the wound Control bleeding Prevent further contamination Keep the patient lying still Reassure the patient Care for shock
Bleeding Internal: Often not noted until signs and symptoms of shock are present External: visible externally in the for of lacerations, abrasions, puncture wounds, avulsions
Treatment of Bleeding Wear Protective Equipment Apply Direct Pressure Apply Pressure Dressing Pressure Points Elevate extremity Tourniquet Splint the extremity
Bandaging Latex gloves Direct pressure 4 x 4 gauze dressings Roller gauze Pressure point Elevation
Impaled Objects Do not remove object Splint the object in place
Nosebleeds Pinch nose Lean forward Apply cold pack to back of neck Seek medical attention if the bleed does not subside
Amputations Cutting or tearing off of the fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms or legs.
Treatment of Amputations Control bleeding with direct pressure Wrap or bag the amputated part in plastic Keep amputated part cool
Shock Occurs when there is a failure of the circulatory system t provide enough blood to all the vital parts of the body. Unless action is taken, shock can lead to death
Shock Signs and Symptoms Weakness Nausea Thirst Dizziness Restlessness and fear
Shock signs and symptoms Rapid and shallow breathing Rapid and weak pulse Pale, cool, and clammy skin disoriented
Eye injuries Do not remove any impaled objects Do not attempt to put the eye back in its socket Do not apply direct pressure on a cut eyeball
Eye injuries Pour water into the eyes Direct the patient to look side to side Flush for 20 minutes Bandage both eyes to restrict eye movement Seek medical attention
Shock Treatment Have the patient lie down and rest Deep the airway open Control external bleeding Keep warm Elevate the lower extremities 12 inches Call 911
Burns First degree burn: Only the outer layer of the skin is burned. Second degree burn: first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is damaged. Third degree burn: all the layers of the skin are damaged.
Burns Stop the burning process Call 911 Maintain an open airway Cover the burn with a loose sterile dressing Give special care to fingers and toes. Insert sterile pads between each finger or toe. Do not moisten the dressings unless the burn involves less than 9 percent of the surface area Provide care for shock
Loss of Consciousness Usually a self correcting form of mild shock Patient may be injured in a fall due to fainting May be a warning sign of a serious condition
Loss of Consciousness Treatment Prevent the person from fainting by lowering the head. Aid them to the ground Elevate legs 8-12 inches Call 911
Hypothermia Lowering of the body temperature below 95 degrees Weather does not have to be below freezing for hypothermia to occur Elderly and infants are at higher risk People with other illnesses and injuries are susceptible to hypothermia
Loss of Body Heat Conduction: Transfer of heat from body to colder object Convection: transfer of heat through circulating air Evaporation: Cooling of body through sweating Radiation: Loss of heat directly into a colder environment Respirations: Body heat lost during breathing.
Hypothermia Treatment Remove patient from cold environment. Do not allow patient to walk. Remove any wet clothing and cover with blankets Do not massage extremities. Warm if possible. Seek medical attention
Frostbite or Frostnip Remove the patient from further exposure Handle the injured part gently. Remove any wet or restricting clothing Never attempt rewarming if there is chance the part may freeze again
Heat exhaustion Onset while working hard or exercising in hot environment. In elderly and young, onset may occur while at rest in hot, humid, and poorly ventilated areas. Cold, clammy skin. Dry tongue and thirst.
Heat Exhaustion Signs and Symptoms Dizziness, weakness, or fainting Normal or slightly elevated body temperature Normal or increased pulse
Heat exhaustion treatment Remove patient from hot environment Loosen any tight clothing Lie victim down and elevate legs Fan to cool If conscious, give water slowly.
Heat Stroke Hot, dry, flushed skin Change in behavior leading to unresponsiveness Pulse rate is rapid, then slow. Death can occur if the patient is not treated rapidly
Heat stroke treatment Call 911 Move patient out of the hot environment Provide air conditioning at high setting Remove the patients clothing Apply moist dressings Cover the patient with wet towels or sheets Fan aggressively
Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms Remove from hot environment Rest the cramping muscle Replace fluids by mouth If cramps do not go away, seek medical assistance
Poisonings Call poison control center Call 911 Identify poison Supportive care
Drug Overdose Call 911 Provide life support measures if required Monitor respirations Protect from further harm Care for shock Reassure patient
Bites, stings, and poisonous plants Noticeable sting or bite to the skin Puncture marks to the skin Pain at the wound site Itching Weakness, dizziness, or collapse Headache Nausea Allergy shock
Bites and Stings treatment Provide care for shock Scraping away bee and wasp stingers with flat edge Keep the extremity below the level of the heart. Call 911
Snakebites Noticeable bite to the skin Pain and swelling in the area Rapid pulse and labored breathing Weakness Vision problems Nausea and vomiting
Snakebite Treatment Call 911 Keep the patient calm and lying down Remove rings, bracelets and other constricting items Keep extremity immobilized Keep below the level of the heart Provide care for shock.
Handling and transporting of injured persons One person lift Two person lift Blanket pull
Altered Mental Status Underlying causes Diabetes: Blood sugar too low or too high Poisonings Drug overdoses Environmental emergencies
First Aid Kits Gauze pads (4 x 4) Two large gauze pads (8 x 10) Band-aids Gauze roller bandage Two triangular bandages Wound cleaning agent Splint Scissors One blanket Tweezers Adhesive tape Latex gloves Resuscitation devices Two elastic wraps Emergency requests