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Nicole Huff August 2007 1 Domestic Violence Nicole Huff, LCSW Bay Area Academy.

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Presentation on theme: "Nicole Huff August 2007 1 Domestic Violence Nicole Huff, LCSW Bay Area Academy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nicole Huff August Domestic Violence Nicole Huff, LCSW Bay Area Academy

2 Nicole Huff August Agenda Introductions & objectives Introductions & objectives History of spousal violence History of spousal violence What does the research say? What does the research say? Domestic violence Domestic violence Domestic violence and children Domestic violence and children Domestic violence and child welfare Domestic violence and child welfare

3 Nicole Huff August History *SafeNetwork: California’s Domestic Violence Resource 753 B.C.-The Laws of Chastisement 753 B.C.-The Laws of Chastisement 1500’s-Lord Hale and the marital rape exemption 1500’s-Lord Hale and the marital rape exemption “Rule of Thumb” “Rule of Thumb” 1804-Napaleonic Code 1804-Napaleonic Code 1800’s America 1800’s America th Amendment th Amendment

4 Nicole Huff August History cont. 1920’s-Psychoanalysis 1920’s-Psychoanalysis 1960’s-Practice of non-arrest 1960’s-Practice of non-arrest 1970’s-Beginning of the Battered Women’s Movement 1970’s-Beginning of the Battered Women’s Movement Late 1970’s-Lawsuits against law enforcement Late 1970’s-Lawsuits against law enforcement

5 Nicole Huff August History cont Battered Women’s Syndrome 1984-Battered Women’s Syndrome 1994-Violence Against Women Act 1994-Violence Against Women Act 1990’s-Status of marital rape exemption 1990’s-Status of marital rape exemption Where are we today?

6 Nicole Huff August Prevalence *Center for Disease Control, Injury Center *A note about data collection Nearly 5.3 million incidents against women and 3.2 million against men a year Nearly 5.3 million incidents against women and 3.2 million against men a year 1.5 million women and 800,000 men raped and/or physically assaulted 1.5 million women and 800,000 men raped and/or physically assaulted 2 million injuries and 1,300 deaths 2 million injuries and 1,300 deaths 85% of victims are women 85% of victims are women

7 Nicole Huff August Risks Battered women Battered women –six times greater risk for drug abuse –fifteen times greater risk for alcohol abuse. Women who abuse drugs/alcohol are more likely to become victims of domestic violence (Miller et al., 1989) Women who abuse drugs/alcohol are more likely to become victims of domestic violence (Miller et al., 1989) (25%) to (50%) of men who commit violent acts of DV also have substance abuse problems (25%) to (50%) of men who commit violent acts of DV also have substance abuse problems

8 Nicole Huff August Higher Risks for Women: Partners experienced periodic unemployment Partners experienced periodic unemployment Partners did not graduate high school Partners did not graduate high school Assault by a former partner than her current partner Assault by a former partner than her current partner

9 Nicole Huff August No Higher Risk Association Race and ethnicity of men Race and ethnicity of men Race, ethnicity, age, or education of women Race, ethnicity, age, or education of women*Caveat

10 Nicole Huff August Cycle of Violence Tension Building Honeymoon Explosive

11 Nicole Huff August Types of Abuse Financial Financial Emotional Emotional

12 Nicole Huff August Types, cont Sexual Sexual Physical Physical

13 Nicole Huff August Traits of Batterers Emotional dependence Emotional dependence Rigid gender and role expectations Rigid gender and role expectations Violate personal boundaries Violate personal boundaries Controlling behaviors Controlling behaviors Jealousy Jealousy Rigid religious or cultural beliefs Rigid religious or cultural beliefs

14 Nicole Huff August Batterers, cont. Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity Difficulty expressing and/or identifying feelings Difficulty expressing and/or identifying feelings Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde Externalize blame Externalize blame Cruelty Cruelty History of using violence to solve problems History of using violence to solve problems

15 Nicole Huff August Responses/Effects re: Victims Stress disorders Stress disorders Low self-esteem Low self-esteem Social isolation Social isolation Feeling hopeless and powerless Feeling hopeless and powerless Fear/Terror Fear/Terror Self-blame Self-blame Anxiety Anxiety

16 Nicole Huff August Victims, cont. Hyper-vigilance Hyper-vigilance Dissociation Dissociation Denial/Minimization Denial/Minimization Wishful thinking Wishful thinking Shame Shame Anger Anger Engaging in high-risk behaviors Engaging in high-risk behaviors

17 Nicole Huff August Why does she stay?

18 Nicole Huff August Assessing Lethality Victim’s report Victim’s report Use of and/or access to weapons Use of and/or access to weapons Threats of homicide and/or suicide Threats of homicide and/or suicide Substance abuse Substance abuse Extreme jealousy or obsession Extreme jealousy or obsession Abuse that involves severe violence Abuse that involves severe violence Recent separation/Change Recent separation/Change

19 Nicole Huff August Cultural Considerations Children of color are over-represented in all “systems” Children of color are over-represented in all “systems” Definitions may be different Definitions may be different Mistrust of mainstream systems Mistrust of mainstream systems Language Language Previous negative experiences with authorities Previous negative experiences with authorities

20 Nicole Huff August What are the risks if she tells? What are the risks if she doesn’t tell?

21 Nicole Huff August Undocumented/Recent Immigrant Fear of deportation Fear of deportation Further isolation Further isolation Language Language Taboos in discussing the family with strangers Taboos in discussing the family with strangers Shame/dishonor Shame/dishonor*VAWA

22 Nicole Huff August Gay, Lesbian, Transgender Threats to “out” partners Threats to “out” partners Seen as mutual (“cat fight”) Seen as mutual (“cat fight”) Reluctance to bring even more negative attention to community Reluctance to bring even more negative attention to community No legal process for separation No legal process for separation

23 Nicole Huff August Male victims Contrary to societal expectations Contrary to societal expectations Extreme shame Extreme shame Discrimination in “systems” responses Discrimination in “systems” responses *Be aware of reactive violence and self defense

24 Nicole Huff August Teens Societal messages about violence Societal messages about violence Development/Age issues Development/Age issues Boundaries Boundaries Pressure Pressure Jealousy & possessiveness Jealousy & possessiveness Exposure to DV Exposure to DV

25 Nicole Huff August Elderly Traditional responses don’t appeal or meet needs Traditional responses don’t appeal or meet needs Generation mores Generation mores “Domestic violence grown old” “Domestic violence grown old” New relationship New relationship Late onset Late onset

26 Nicole Huff August Disabled Limitations in communications ability Limitations in communications ability Dependent on abuser Dependent on abuser Low self esteem/view of self as “damaged” Low self esteem/view of self as “damaged” Physically incapable Physically incapable Loss of caretaker Loss of caretaker

27 Nicole Huff August Children and the Numbers Between 3.3 and 10 million children exposed every year Between 3.3 and 10 million children exposed every year Slightly more than half of victims of intimate violence have children in the home Slightly more than half of victims of intimate violence have children in the home 79% of violent children witnessed DV 79% of violent children witnessed DV

28 Nicole Huff August DV & Children 80% of child abuse cases are associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs 80% of child abuse cases are associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs 43% of child fatalities occur in families where the mother was abused 43% of child fatalities occur in families where the mother was abused

29 Nicole Huff August DV & Children Daughters of batterers are 6.5 times more likely to be victims of incest Daughters of batterers are 6.5 times more likely to be victims of incest 45-70% of cases of domestic violence where there are children, the children are also abused 45-70% of cases of domestic violence where there are children, the children are also abused Child abuse by those mothers who have been beaten is at least double that of mothers whose husbands did not assault them Child abuse by those mothers who have been beaten is at least double that of mothers whose husbands did not assault them 50% of men who batter their partners also batter their children 50% of men who batter their partners also batter their children

30 Nicole Huff August DV & Child Welfare Domestic violence is a significant problem for 30%-40% of families in the Child Welfare system Domestic violence is a significant problem for 30%-40% of families in the Child Welfare system Santa Clara County statistics show 40-80% of cases involved “overlap” Santa Clara County statistics show 40-80% of cases involved “overlap” –40% had DV issues within the last year –80% had DV issues from one or both parties sometime in their history

31 Nicole Huff August Effects on children Of Children who witness their mother being abused: Of Children who witness their mother being abused: 40% suffer anxiety 40% suffer anxiety 48% suffer depression 48% suffer depression 53% act out with their parents 53% act out with their parents 60% act out with their siblings 60% act out with their siblings

32 Nicole Huff August Effects, cont. Normalize violence Normalize violence Poor impulse control Poor impulse control Sleep disturbances Sleep disturbances Injury Injury Withdrawn Withdrawn Delinquent/negative behaviors Delinquent/negative behaviors Aggression Aggression

33 Nicole Huff August Assessment Interview separately Interview separately Patterns in language and behavior Patterns in language and behavior Always ask the questions, no matter what the initial allegation is Always ask the questions, no matter what the initial allegation is Behaviors not buzzwords Behaviors not buzzwords SAFETY SAFETY

34 Nicole Huff August Assessment cont. Assess protective capacities Assess protective capacities Hold each adult accountable to their own abusive behaviors Hold each adult accountable to their own abusive behaviors Collateral sources Collateral sources

35 Nicole Huff August Presence of domestic violence alone is not child abuse

36 Nicole Huff August Interview Questions Interviewing the child Interviewing the child Interviewing the known/potential victim Interviewing the known/potential victim Interviewing the known/potential batterer Interviewing the known/potential batterer

37 Nicole Huff August Social Worker’s Role with Children Assess and assure their safety Assess and assure their safety Reassure them that they are not responsible for the violence Reassure them that they are not responsible for the violence Reassure them it is okay to talk about the violence Reassure them it is okay to talk about the violence Discuss safety with them as appropriate Discuss safety with them as appropriate

38 Nicole Huff August Social Worker’s Role with Victim Reassure her she is not responsible for the violence occurring or stopping Reassure her she is not responsible for the violence occurring or stopping Understand her ambivalence Understand her ambivalence Determine protective capacities Determine protective capacities Assist in safety planning Assist in safety planning Refer her to appropriate services Refer her to appropriate services

39 Nicole Huff August Social Worker’s Role with Batterer Hold him responsible for his choosing to be violent and controlling Hold him responsible for his choosing to be violent and controlling Work with law enforcement to hold him accountable Work with law enforcement to hold him accountable Assess whether he is taking responsibility for his behavior Assess whether he is taking responsibility for his behavior Look for strengths Look for strengths Make appropriate referrals Make appropriate referrals

40 Nicole Huff August Batterers’ Tactics Presenting himself as the victim Presenting himself as the victim Statements of remorse and guilt, but no actions Statements of remorse and guilt, but no actions Focusing on victim’s faults/Allegations Focusing on victim’s faults/Allegations Denying & minimizing Denying & minimizing Victim blaming Victim blaming Blaming substance abuse Blaming substance abuse

41 Nicole Huff August Can child stay safely with non- offending parent? Protective capacities Protective capacities Safe location Safe location Acknowledge risk to children Acknowledge risk to children Level of violence-not escalating Level of violence-not escalating Other issues don’t pose a threat Other issues don’t pose a threat Support, services, community Support, services, community

42 Nicole Huff August Low Risk Factors Children show minimal damage Children show minimal damage Batterer is out of home or cooperating with restraining orders Batterer is out of home or cooperating with restraining orders Batterer takes responsibility for actions Batterer takes responsibility for actions Victim acknowledges risk and has protective capacities Victim acknowledges risk and has protective capacities Family has positive supports Family has positive supports No other risk issues No other risk issues Minimal/No CPS history Minimal/No CPS history

43 Nicole Huff August Restraining/Protective Orders Emergency Protective Orders (EPRO) Emergency Protective Orders (EPRO) Temporary Restraining Orders (TRO) Temporary Restraining Orders (TRO) Permanent Restraining Orders Permanent Restraining Orders No Contact Orders No Contact Orders Peaceful Contact Orders Peaceful Contact Orders *CPS cannot require restraining orders!

44 Nicole Huff August High Risk Factors Continued violence despite previous intervention Continued violence despite previous intervention Other types of abuse are present Other types of abuse are present Child exhibits concerning behavioral and/or emotional effects and/or is having issues functioning Child exhibits concerning behavioral and/or emotional effects and/or is having issues functioning Child is used as weapon in abuse, is intervening, is held during incidents, has been injured Child is used as weapon in abuse, is intervening, is held during incidents, has been injured

45 Nicole Huff August High Risk cont. Other risk factors impacting safety are present Other risk factors impacting safety are present –Substance abuse –Mental health –Child abuse Lethality Lethality Victim does not acknowledge risk Victim does not acknowledge risk

46 Nicole Huff August Service Provision Separate services-even if the couple remains intact Separate services-even if the couple remains intact Team Decision Making/Family Conferences Team Decision Making/Family Conferences Advocates Advocates Safety Plans (victims) Safety Plans (victims) Action Plans (batterers) Action Plans (batterers)

47 Nicole Huff August Services cont. Batterer’s Intervention Batterer’s Intervention Visitation Visitation Other services (not substitutes) Other services (not substitutes) –Substance abuse services –Mental health services –Psychotropic medication

48 Nicole Huff August Services cont. Victim services Victim services –Closed therapeutic group –Open attendance –Mandated Inappropriate services Inappropriate services –Anger management –Couple’s counseling

49 Nicole Huff August Who are our partners? Law enforcement Law enforcement Victim services Victim services Batterer services Batterer services Probation/Parole Probation/Parole Judiciary Judiciary Mental health/Substance abuse Mental health/Substance abuse

50 Nicole Huff August Desired Outcomes Safety for victims and children Safety for victims and children Break down victim isolation and provide support Break down victim isolation and provide support Help victim understand Help victim understand Provide victim appropriate services Provide victim appropriate services Assist in batterer receiving services Assist in batterer receiving services

51 Nicole Huff August Nicole Huff, MSW, LCSW FOR MORE INFORMATION:


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