Presentation on theme: "Intimate Partner Violence Impact. A. Impact: Injuries ¥ > Women (3%) than Men (.4%) need medical attention for injuries sustained from marital aggression."— Presentation transcript:
A. Impact: Injuries ¥ > Women (3%) than Men (.4%) need medical attention for injuries sustained from marital aggression (Nat’l Sample) ¥ Significantly more severe injuries sustained by women (marital aggression sample).
A. Impact: Injuries ¥ UMSL Study of battered women 97% some type of injury/medical complication from IPV. – Bruises to head, face, neck (88%), other (79%) – Loss of consciousness (46%) – Cuts on body (46%), or head/face/neck (36%) – STD’s (28%) – Dislocations (21%) – Ruptured eardrum (21%)
A. Impact: Injuries ¥ UMSL Study Findings (con’t) – Miscarriage (21%) – Damaged teeth (15%) – Burns, head/face/neck (9%) – Damage to Internal Organs (9%). – At least One Permanent Scars/Mark (59%) – 1-3 Permanent Marks or Scars (25%) – 4-10 Permanent Marks or Scars (13%)
B. Impact:Mental Health ¥ Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ¥ Depression and Suicidality ¥ Substance Abuse ¥ Psychosexual Problems ¥ Anxiety Disorders ¥ Diminished Coping ¥ Reduced Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem.
B. Impact: Lethal Outcomes ¥ Approximately 2,000 deaths annually due to intimate partner homicide. ¥ From 2/3 to 3/4 are men killing their female partners. ¥ 30% of female murders vs. 6% of male murders were committed by an intimate.
C. Impact:Economic Effects ¥ Costs due to Medical Care ¥ Costs due to Missed Work ¥ Miller et al (1996) estimated the costs of IPV as $67 billion/year (15% of total crime costs). – Due to medical, functional impairment, decreased quality of life. Excludes disability and welfare costs and those resulting from the long- term psychological impact of ipv.
D. Impact: Effects on Children ¥ At least 3.3 million children exposed to IPV/yr ¥ Children observe, overhear abusive incidents and witness results (bruises, injuries, etc). ¥ Effects are: short-term and long-term, affecting emotional, cognitive and social development both during childhood and extending into adulthood. ¥ 40-60% of children who witness also suffer abuse themselves; also increased risk of neglect and emotional abuse.
D. Impact: Effects on Children (Con’t) ¥ Damage in 4 general areas: –Immediate traumatic effects; –Adverse effects on development; –Greatly increased stress, especially fear of harm to themselves and their mothers; –Consequences of exposure to violent/abusive role models greatly increases risk of current and future perpetration.
D. Impact: Effects on Children (Con’t) ¥ Traumatic Effects-anxiety,depression,PTSD, self-blame, suicidality,somatic complaints, bed-wetting, withdrawal. ¥ Developmental Effects: school problems, impaired social competence,poor problem- solving skills, low self-esteem. ¥ Behavioral Effects: Aggression, low empathy, truancy, substance use, acceptance/legitmization of violence
D. Impact: Mediating Effects on Children ¥ Responses vary by exposure (frequency, severity, and multiplicity), risk/resillence. ¥ Age: no clear findings,suggest younger worse ¥ Gender: Very mixed results ¥ Race/Ethnicity: Understudied, but Euro-Amer found to have more externalizing than African-American children
E. Impact: Risk Factors for Exposed Children ¥ Impaired Maternal Functioning; ¥ Multiple Exposure to Violence, such as witnessing and experiencing abuse; amount and variety of violence ¥ Increased Exposure to Other Stressors, such as poverty, parental substance abuse. ¥ Adjustment most related to AMOUNT of violence
F. Impact: Resillience Factors for Exposed Children ¥ Individual attributes of the child, e.g., hardiness, sociability and social or academic competence, positive self-worth; ¥ Social support within the family system; ¥ Social support outside the family system;
F. Impact: Long-Term Effects on Children ¥ Boys who witness their fathers using violence against their mothers are at extreme risk for engaging in IPV as adults. ¥ Intervention at this level might help to prevent boys from becoming batterers. ¥ Adults exposed to IPV during Childhood experience higher rates of PTSD, depression, substance use, relationship conflict and violence, violence outside the family.
G. Special Issues w/Children ¥ Children may be used as pawns to threaten victim or maintain control over her –Abuser may threaten to take children or may actually abduct them. –Abuser may manipulate children into spying on and reporting back on partner’s activities. –Abuser may threaten to report her to DFS. –Visitations can be used to control/stalk her