Types of Estimates Rough - gut level, inaccurate -30% to +60%. ROM Semi detailed - based on historical records, reasonably sophisticated and accurate -15% to +20%. Detailed - based on detailed specifications and cost models, very accuracy -3% to +5%.
Difficulties in Estimation One of a Kind –Estimation by analogy Time and effort available Estimator experience
Take Home Thoughts Most engineers work on projects Projects have a life cycle Accuracy of estimates increases with design completion Projects must be managed with attention to cost, schedule, and performance Projects are estimated and tracked with a work breakdown structure Changes to design cost more as the project progresses
What is a “profession?” Specialized education leading to knowledge and skills not commonly possessed by the public The work requires exercise of discretion and judgment and is not subject to standardization. The profession has legal status and requires well- formulated standards for admission such as registration or licensing Standards of conduct are set forth in codes of ethics
Group consciousness promotes knowledge and professional ideals through societies and associations. The professional community exercises oversight and control of member conduct Activates satisfy indispensable and beneficial needs, with service to the public as the foremost motive.
Professional licensing AKA “Registration” Dates to early 1900 –Chaos with development –Texas one of last Most countries have similar laws Laws and Regulations Law establishes Board of Registration –Promulgates regulations
Alaska Has unified board of Architects, Engineers, and Land Surveyors Belongs to NCEES –National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying –Develops Exams (FE and PE) and –Suggests policy
Licensing Education –4 years ABET Experience –4 years Examination –Pass both FE and PE
Why get your license? Certain jobs require it You must have it to consult In many situations it improves your chances for promotion Professional pride “Industrial exemption” –Dilbert doesn’t have license
Organization of Profession Or, “engineering the fragmented profession.” Discipline Employment Management
Discipline ME, CE, EE, others ME –HVAC –Machine –Energy And so on
Employment Government Industry Academia/Research Construction Consulting
What is “morality” Conduct and motives Right and wrong Good and bad character
What is ethics? Ethics is the study of morals The application of morals Analysis of moral choices
Professional Ethics Engineering ethics Rules and standards that govern our engineering choices and decisions How should we conduct ourselves in our professional capacity? Cost vs. safety.
Engineers handle complex matters –future effects Personal vs. Professional Ethics Personal –How we treat other persons Professional –Corporations –Governments
Why teach ethics Good people know the right thing to do and do it. Bad people are not going to do the right thing. Heat recovery system.
Code of Ethics NSPE All major engineering societies similar Alaska (all most states) regulations Intent of Code is encourage/regulate professional conduct for the good of society.
paramount Engineers…shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. Fundamental canon 1.
NSPE Code NSPE EthicsEthics State of Alaska EthicsEthics (via touch and go) –http://touchngo.com/lglcntr/akstats/AAC/Title12/Chapter0 36/Section200.htm
Issues Conflict of Interest Confidentially Contributions and Kickbacks Whistle blowing International Benefit Cost –Safety v. Affordability
Take Home Thoughts Engineering is a profession Engineers make decisions with profound effect on the public heath, safety, and wellbeing Engineers are required to be licensed to practice engineering Engineers have a code of ethics that governs their professional conduct
If nothing else, remember paramountEngineers…shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. Fundamental canon 1.