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ES 101 Projects and Ethics Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE

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2 ES 101 Projects and Ethics Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE


4 What’s an “engineer”? LS 100 T vs. Q Different than a “scientist?” Engineers Design things Needlework? Designs that must use natural science and mathematics.

5 Steps in Engineering Education (Inclination, motivation) General College Math and Science General Engineering General Discipline Special Discipline

6 Thought Methods Analysis Synthesis Components Design

7 Design Output Report –calculations –recommendations Plans and Drawings Specifications

8 Most engineering work gets done is projects What’s a project –in your own words

9 What is a project? One-of-kind undertaking Definite objective Start and end points

10 Engineers work Owners of Projects –planning, administration, expert advice Design of Projects –A/E Construction –planning, bidding, administration, design Regulation

11 Project Life Cycle

12 Three aspects of P.M Schedule –time Cost –budget Production –performance, specification

13 Bar Chart Schedules Most common Simple (Excel) Gantt chart

14 WBS Cost codes (Excel)

15 Types of Estimates Rough - gut level, inaccurate -30% to +60%. ROM Semi detailed - based on historical records, reasonably sophisticated and accurate -15% to +20%. Detailed - based on detailed specifications and cost models, very accuracy -3% to +5%.



18 Difficulties in Estimation One of a Kind –Estimation by analogy Time and effort available Estimator experience

19 Take Home Thoughts Most engineers work on projects Projects have a life cycle Accuracy of estimates increases with design completion Projects must be managed with attention to cost, schedule, and performance Projects are estimated and tracked with a work breakdown structure Changes to design cost more as the project progresses

20 Engineering as a Profession

21 What is a “profession?” Specialized education leading to knowledge and skills not commonly possessed by the public The work requires exercise of discretion and judgment and is not subject to standardization. The profession has legal status and requires well- formulated standards for admission such as registration or licensing Standards of conduct are set forth in codes of ethics

22 Group consciousness promotes knowledge and professional ideals through societies and associations. The professional community exercises oversight and control of member conduct Activates satisfy indispensable and beneficial needs, with service to the public as the foremost motive.

23 Professional licensing AKA “Registration” Dates to early 1900 –Chaos with development –Texas one of last Most countries have similar laws Laws and Regulations Law establishes Board of Registration –Promulgates regulations

24 Alaska Has unified board of Architects, Engineers, and Land Surveyors Belongs to NCEES –National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying –Develops Exams (FE and PE) and –Suggests policy

25 Licensing Education –4 years ABET Experience –4 years Examination –Pass both FE and PE

26 Why does society issue licenses?


28 Protect the Public

29 Why get your license? Certain jobs require it You must have it to consult In many situations it improves your chances for promotion Professional pride “Industrial exemption” –Dilbert doesn’t have license

30 Organization of Profession Or, “engineering the fragmented profession.” Discipline Employment Management

31 Discipline ME, CE, EE, others ME –HVAC –Machine –Energy And so on

32 Employment Government Industry Academia/Research Construction Consulting

33 Ethics What do we mean by ethics?

34 What is “morality” Conduct and motives Right and wrong Good and bad character

35 What is ethics? Ethics is the study of morals The application of morals Analysis of moral choices

36 Professional Ethics Engineering ethics Rules and standards that govern our engineering choices and decisions How should we conduct ourselves in our professional capacity? Cost vs. safety.

37 Engineers handle complex matters –future effects Personal vs. Professional Ethics Personal –How we treat other persons Professional –Corporations –Governments

38 Why teach ethics Good people know the right thing to do and do it. Bad people are not going to do the right thing. Heat recovery system.

39 Code of Ethics NSPE All major engineering societies similar Alaska (all most states) regulations Intent of Code is encourage/regulate professional conduct for the good of society.

40 paramount Engineers…shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. Fundamental canon 1.

41 NSPE Code NSPE EthicsEthics State of Alaska EthicsEthics (via touch and go) – 36/Section200.htm

42 Issues Conflict of Interest Confidentially Contributions and Kickbacks Whistle blowing International Benefit Cost –Safety v. Affordability

43 Take Home Thoughts Engineering is a profession Engineers make decisions with profound effect on the public heath, safety, and wellbeing Engineers are required to be licensed to practice engineering Engineers have a code of ethics that governs their professional conduct

44 If nothing else, remember paramountEngineers…shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public. Fundamental canon 1.

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