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ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering 10 Professional Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering 10 Professional Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering 10 Professional Ethics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer

2 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 2 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Development of Prof. Ethics  OutLine The Nature of Ethics Definition of “Ethics” Definition of an Ethically Based “Profession” Short History of Professional Ethics –Oaths –Code(s) of Ethics Brief History of Engineering code(s) of Ethics SIMILARITIES to Ethics in Other Professions DIFFERENCES from Ethics in Other Professions Conclusion

3 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 3 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering The Nature of Ethics  Ethics is generally concerned with rules or guidelines for morals and/or socially approved conduct substantial effect on people’s lives  Ethical standards generally apply to conduct that can or does have a substantial effect on people’s lives

4 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 4 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Ethics Defined  General Ethics The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by a person; moral philosophy  Professional Ethics The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession

5 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 5 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering General Ethics Theories  Utilitarianism  Duty Ethics  Rights Ethics  Virtue Ethics

6 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 6 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Utilitarian Ethics J. S. Mill ( )  Considers a balance of good & bad consequences for everyone affected (society)  Actions are good that serve to promote human well-being OverAll Cost-Benefit analysis is an application  Consideration of the most benefit to the most people outweighs needs of a few individuals

7 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 7 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Duty Ethics Immanuel Kant ( )  There are duties that should be performed regardless of whether these acts do the most good or NOT  Kant believed that there are higher principles that are good in every time, every culture, and every situation. When faced with an ethical dilemma, Kant believed we should ask ourselves: “To whom do I owe a duty and what duty do I owe them?” e.g.; Duty to treat others fairly, or not to injure others

8 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 8 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Rights Ethics John Locke ( )  Locke Believed that ALL PERSONS are born FREE and EQUAL  Thus INDIVIDUALS have fundamental rights (such as: life, liberty, & property) that others have a duty to respect.

9 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 9 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Virtue Ethics  Virtue-based ethics places less emphasis on rules and instead focuses on good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. These character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make the correct decisions later in life  Actions are considered right if they support good character traits (virtues) and wrong if they support bad character traits (vices) Closely tied to Personal Honor

10 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 10 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Examples  Personal Ethics  DownLoad Pirated Software  Expense Account Padding  Copying of HomeWork  Income Tax “fudging”  “Borrowing” Nuts & Bolts, office-supplies from employer  Copying of Videos or Music  Plagiarism (cut & paste from InterNet)  Using the Copy Machine at Work

11 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 11 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering ¿¿¿ Class Question ???  What are some of the Characteristics of a Profession or a Professional?

12 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 12 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering “Profession” Defined  A “Profession” Differs from a “Job”, an “Occupation”, or a even a “Career”  All professions combine special knowledge special privileges special responsibilities

13 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 13 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering “Professional” Defined  Professional skills are important to the well-being of society. Professionals: Have autonomy in the workplace; They are expected to utilize their independent judgment in carrying out their professional responsibilities. Finally, professions are regulated by ethical standards; often embodied in Codes of Ethics

14 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 14 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering “Professional” Summarized  Possesses specialized knowledge and skills  Belongs to, and abides by, the standards of a society  Serves an important aspect of the public good

15 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 15 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering as a Profession  Satisfies indispensable and beneficial need  Discretion and judgment, not subject to standardization  Knowledge and skill not commonly possessed by the general public  Group consciousness promotes knowledge, professional ideas, social services  Legal status (P.E.’s are “Practice Regulated”)  Well-formulated Standards Of Admission Code of Ethics  Practice Governed by a Code of Ethics

16 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 16 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Oaths (to Ethical Ideals)  The PreCursor of Codes of Ethics  Usually Based on Gentlemanly Honor  First → Hippocratic Oath (400 BC) This Oath of Medical Ethics for Physicians formed the basis of more recent medical, and other, Oaths  New York Oath (1807) An “UpDated” Version of the Hippocratic Version

17 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 17 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering New York (Medical) Oath I“I I“I do solemnly declare, that II II will honestly, virtuously, and chastely conduct myself in the practice of physic and surgery, with the privileges of exercising which profession II II am now to be invested; and that II II will, with fidelity and honor, do everything in my my power for the benefit of the sick committed to my my charge.” Note the Powerful commitment to PERSONAL Honor

18 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 18 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Oaths are NOT Enough  Examine Professional Oaths: Language used is very Subjective First person singular often used –“I swear” –“I declare” –“I shall”  An oath is subject to personal interpretation  Oaths are too general to provide much guidance  Oaths are not suitable for large-scale professional institutions.

19 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 19 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Codes of Ethics  Thomas Percival ( ) Published a CODE of medical ethics for physicians in 1794 The FIRST code for professional ethics  Percival’s was also the First code of ethics to be adopted by a Professional Organization - the American Medical Association (AMA)

20 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 20 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Codes of Ethics  Percival’s code of ethics was UNlike oaths The Code Banished –The first person singular –Subjectivity –Idiosyncrasy  Replaced 1 st Person with the 2 nd and 3 rd person plural  Formulated standards of conduct with enumerated “DUTIES”  Asserted the moral authority and independence of medical professionals

21 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 21 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Codes of Ethics  Modern Professions adopted codes of ethics to: Promote Common Standards Minimize interpersonal strife that the emphasis on individual honor encourages Provide a Conduct-Structure that permits professionals to assert their independence of their nominal employers in the name of the Profession –i.e., Service to OTHERS takes precedence over Service to the EMPLOYER

22 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 22 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering Codes of Ethics  Two early engineering codes of ethics 1912 – first engineering code of ethics adopted by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers - the AIEE (Later the IEEE) 1914 – a code of ethics for engineers adopted by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers  The Early Codes Said a great deal about protection of the client’s or employer’s interest business relationships the ownership of data  Had only little general concern for the public safety, health, or welfare

23 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 23 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Engineering Code of Ethics  The evolution of the Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD – now ABET) code of ethics First version of the ECPD code produced in 1947 Emphasized concern for the public well-being & safety –“fidelity to the public” –Engineer’s “duty to interest himself in public welfare…apply his/her special knowledge for the benefit of mankind”  Lead to the writing of Similar Codes

24 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 24 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Similarity to Other Professions  Focus on public safety and the safety of their patients or clients or customers  Emphasize that one should only attempt to perform only those practices that which are in the practitioner’s capability  Focus on special care and attention for their clients or patients or customers  Keep up the level of competence in the Field  Emphasize the importance of professionalism  Denounce acts of deception or fraud  Emphasize importance of client/patient/customer confidentiality

25 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 25 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Differences from Other Prof’s  The paramount duty of engineers is to: Safety, Health, and Welfare of the PUBLIC  Physicians’ paramount duty is to the PATIENT  Engineering ethics focuses on the way information is provided to the public  Physicians most help those in emergency situations  Engineering ethics focuses more on relationships between engineers

26 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 26 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Ethics Conclusion  Ethics in professional lives is not new - Ethics have been around for ages.  Today every Profession has code(s) by which their professionals must practice.  Engineers are no exception. So remember, A code of ethics isn’t something that gets posted on a bulletin board - It’s something every engineer should live every day.

27 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 27 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Ethics is also GOOD BUSINESS  The Mayer Axiom of Ethics SLEAZE is NOT a Strategy for LONG TERM SUCESS

28 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 28 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering All Done for Today Ethical Pressures

29 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 29 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 10 Appendix

30 ENGR-10_Lec-20_Chp15_Ethics_History.ppt 30 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to Engineering


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