Presentation on theme: "Implementing GAP programmes: lessons learnt from other countries and FAO activities Anne-Sophie Poisot, FAO Agriculture Department FAO-Thailand Workshop."— Presentation transcript:
Implementing GAP programmes: lessons learnt from other countries and FAO activities Anne-Sophie Poisot, FAO Agriculture Department FAO-Thailand Workshop on GAP for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables September 2005
2 Objective : share lessons 1. Scope & purpose of GAP 2. Benefits & costs for farmers & countries 3. Alternative scenarios and options 4. Lessons on stakeholders and strategies 5. FAO assistance on GAP
3 socially acceptable GAP economically viable environmentally sustainable socially acceptable ensuring food safety & quality 1. What is GAP ? FAO definition GAP: practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm processes and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products (FAO, 2003)
4 are the basis for implementing Quality and Safety Assurance programmes such as HACCP or Certification programmes
5....welcome to the GAP jungle... Definitions- Types of GAP Standards (1) 1. Standards – generic term (ISO) PRODUCT standards = on product attributes: taste, appearance, safety, convenience, etc. PROCESS standards = how products are made : organic method, protecting environment and workers, etc 2. Regulations: Government standards – mandatory 3. International standards e.g. Codex Alimentarius, International Plant Protection Convention, Code of conduct on the use of pesticides, etc.
6 Definitions – Types of GAP Standards (2) 4. Business-to-Business Certification programme with third-party or in-house assurance No label. e.g. EurepGAP 5. Labelling: an information on certification to the consumer National GAP programmes are based on some or most of the above. e.g. Thai Q GAP, Malaysia SALM, ChileGAP, Guatemala PIPAA, Singapore GAP-VF, IndonGAP,...
7 = Scientific knowledge, food ‘scandals’, increased consumer awareness, increased trade, political & commercial risk aversion Official Programmes – Tightening of regulations for long-standing concerns; new standards for unknown/ unregulated hazards – Total ‘farm to fork’ perspective; more process standards – Intensification of enforcement – Precaution in face of scientific uncertainty Private Programmes – Consolidate sourcing— ’preferred suppliers’ – Harmonization yet competition between private standards – Shift responsibility on the producer Driving forces of GAP
8 Features of GAP programmes Critical review Food Safety/Qlty Economic Environmentnot enough! Socialnot enough!
9...one definition of ‘GAP’ standard is not equal to another... International standards, market GAPs, national GAPs... - compare them, AND - compare with your national/local knowledge on the content: “Is this is really ‘good practice’?” on benefits: “What will I/we really benefit?” = define your standard and strategy best adapted to your NEEDS and OBJECTIVES ?
10 2. Lessons - Challenges of GAP : For farmers Too many standards and codes Hard for small farmers (investments, paperwork, certification fees) e.g. cooperative tomatoes suppliers to McDonald’s in Guatemala: from 330 to 6 in two years … Not always a better price for GAP products Lack of local certification body & certified testing lab Not always guarantee from buyer Market advantage may disappear overtime
11 Lessons - Challenges of GAP : For countries Harmonization - with SPS/natl regulations AND - with private standards Tightening + proliferation of standards coincide with downward international prices ‘Traditional’ competitiveness factors for export (macroecon. stability, productivity, logistics, reliability) often as/more important as standards!
12 Strategic Options for Developing Countries, Farmers & Agribusiness Exit—change export markets, shift back to domestic market, change products, get out of business Voice—WTO complaints/cross-notifications, CODEX participation, bilateral negotiations, negotiate with buyers Loyalty: ensure compliance to GAP Some combinations of these options are normally employed at the country, industry or farm level Lessons from: Hirschman’s ‘Paradigm of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty as Strategic Options’
13 3. Alternative scenarios for GAP GAP as Barrier... or... – Non-transparent protective tool – Information unclear – High, unattainable – High costs of compliance – Marginalize small countries, traders and farmers – Contraction of Trade GAP as Catalyst – Harmonized procedures and rules build confidence – Spur investment, modernization &public/private collaboration – Stimulate improved practices & stronger technical support – Foster new forms of competitive advantage – Maintain/expand income opportunities Lessons from: World Bank, 2004
15 4. Lessons learnt – GAP Incentives Farmer need to get a clear benefit for GAP to succeed (Burkina Faso, Chile) Focus on improvement: encourage innovation, not compliance: HOW ? Most GAP, though not all, pay for themselves (they improve product quality & reduce risk) (Burkina Faso) Need long term training for farmers and advisers to change practices (IPM program)
16 Lessons-learnt - GAP Strategy Be strategic: some crops have more impacts and potential than others Focus on the most serious environmental impacts: 8-10 activities cause most impacts Policy and coordination of government services Build CREDIBILITY of GAP programme MULTIDISCIPLINARY expertise needed for GAP: food safety and quality + sustainable production + marketing + extension/training
17 Lessons learnt - GAP Stakeholders Successful GAP programmes involve producer organizations, consumers, exporters/retailers & gov. (Latin America). Government cannot do all Farmers & communities create most good practices (Burkina Faso) too much consumer & managerial focus think of farmers
18 In Summary: GAP Components Content: 4 pillars food safety & quality, environ, economic & social sustainability Length &Quality of training a KEY to success of GAP Should initiate or be closely involved
19 5. FAO assistance on GAP 1) INFORMATION on GAP: studies on incentives, cost, benefits… GAP database GAP website 2) DEFINING GLOBAL PRINCIPLES of GAP (on-going) 3) COUNTRY AND REGIONAL LEVEL a. Policy & technical assistance projects b. Facilitate agreement on GAP between public/private stakeholders c. Capacity building: trainer of trainers & farmers, help farmers link to markets
20 Remember ! GAP is about... Coverage of sustainability issues = INTEGRATION Who pays for GAP? = REPARTITION Opportunities, but risks for small farmers. Effects on trade + and - = analyze REPERCUSSIONS Ultimately, a matter of policy choice for governments = VISION Support win-win situations for consumers, food markets and farmers = NEGOTIATION