Presentation on theme: "Good Agricultural Practices Approach (GAP) A Working Concept"— Presentation transcript:
1Good Agricultural Practices Approach (GAP) A Working Concept By Anne-Sophie Poisot, FAO/AGDFAO Workshop on Good Agricultural Practices, October 2004, Romegood morningASP – most know meam going to present to you some bakcground and what we came up with as our working concept for GAPbasically drawn from the Working concept doc
21. Big challenges for agriculture ? Improve food security, livelihoodsSatisfy increasing demands for safe and nutritious food and other productsConserve the natural resource baseCommitmentsWSSD and SARD - economic, social and environmental sustainabilityWorld Food Summit Plan of Action, MDGsSo what is the bigger context ?they are the big challenges for ag in 21st cent...doing altogether is really a challengethe international community has made commitmt about helping to do thisNOW
3The million dollar question is… How to make agricultural systemsin developing countriesmore sustainable, in a globalizing world where food supply chainsare ever more competitive ?
4Developments in Ag. Sector ‘Demand’ by consumers, retailers, processorsFood safety, quality, nutritionEnvironmental impact of agriculture‘Supply’ by farmers who adopt practicesImprove livelihoods‘Support’ by governments and institutionsSustainable agriculture policiesResearch, extension, education, credit, infrastructureWhat are different stakeholders doing about it ?
5GAP: What is new under the sun ? For decades: extension and research guidelines on “good practices”More recent trend: GAP in food markets - growing number of “GAP” codes & standards - privatization of standardsRenewed attention as entry point for food safety & quality in food chainSo how does GAP fit in thisand what is new under the sun
6Good production practices at farm level can make a huge difference! Simple assumption…Good production practices at farm level can make a huge difference!the simple assumption for this renewed interest in GAP is that :... in contributing to meeting the challenges for ag in the 21st cent
7Can codes support sustainable ag.? Private certification and standards (e.g.: EUREP, retail…)Competitive advantage - not all farmers can meetFocus more on impact on product than on sustainabilityPublic legislation and policies (e.g. : extension, research)Society-driven – broader sustainability prioritiesLocal, small farmer-adaptedBut lack financial resourcesFair trade, organicA mix of bothProvide capacity building. Environmental and social aspectsBut market share may be limited in longer termI will not expand too much on this after andrew s presentation but One can broadly distinguish(SKIP THIS SLIDE IF HE USED IT)
8“Any problem”? Too many standards and codes, confusing Opportunities, but hard for small farmers to meet private & export standards (cost, investments, paperwork) and certification feesFarmers don’t always get a price premiumDifferent scopes of GAPAre food safety/quality and food security/sustainability GAPs compatible or contradictory?so – any problem ?yes, because many concerns are raised about the multiplication of GAP-related standardsWide scope of activities related to food safety, food quality, env impacs, healther impacts(farm labour), …
9Farmers incentives to adopt? Economic: price premium, market access; access to inputs; stabilize yield, increase productivity, reduce losses, increase farm asset value...Regulatory/Legal: ascertain property rights to scare resources; reduce liability...Human/social capital: expand skill sets, reduce community tensions...why should farmers adopt GAPi\ncentives will of course vary depending on the contents of the Gap codes and so will disencentives,but we can mention....
10… which means… that farmers have many incentives to apply GAPs whether or not that gives them access to segregated markets or price premiumswhich means what ? that.....(I would invite to check the annex of the Working concept doc which is drawn from the very interesting paper on the range of incentives prepared for the EC last year?
112. And FAO…? Development of a GAP Approach in FAO Identification of Preliminary Principles of GAP and electronic discussions in context of SARDRequest for guidance at COAG 2003GAP Expert Consultation, Nov 2003, Romeso with these developments happening , what about FAOstarting working more closely on the issue about 2-3 years ago with the development ofabc
12a. “Global Principles of GAP” Form 11 components of ag. practicesIdentify hazards to be avoidedIdentify outcomes to be promoted= Provide a basis for the developmentof codes of practice for individualproduction systems
13The 11 components Soil Water Crop and fodder production Crop protectionAnimal feed and livestock productionAnimal healthAnimal welfareHarvest and on-farm processing and storageEnergy and waste managementHuman welfare, health and safetyWildlife and landscapePresented in COAG paperSEE ANNEX 1 of Working concept docAdmittedly they are imperfect and still need refinement
14b. FAO dos and don’ts on GAP: (COAG 2003) COAG: ”GOOD, GO AHEAD” but…DON’TsNo new intergovernmental standard or certification, no barriers to trade : voluntary practicesNo undue demands on resource-poor producersConsistent with existing regulations (Codex, IPPC, OIE)DOsShare lessons through multi-stakeholder processes and capacity buildingConsider different commodities, agro-ecosystems, and scale & resources of farmersbecause GAP both touches on market issues and it has a broad definition of sustainability, COAG provided guidance on GAP as concerns were raised that it could be equated to the concept of multifunctionality of agricultureso coag recommdd that :...
15c. Expert Consultation: definition of a GAP approach addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability inclusive of food safety and qualityfocused on primary production (whilst considering the supply chain and institutional context)taking account voluntary and regulatory aspectswithin a given incentive and agro-ecology context= Focus on a GAP Approach and not the creation of a FAO international “Super-GAP”
16Meanwhile, in the field… Many projects related to GAP are implemented by different units: Eastern Africa (AGAP), Latin America, Thailand, China (ESNS and RLC), Burkina Faso (AGD/AGS/AGPC), Asia region (AGE, AGSF), Brazil and West Africa (AGPC) etc, etc, etcWith different entry points: food safety and quality, sustainable production systems, meat and milk production, certification and value-chains, participatory extension etc, etc, etc
173. Lessons learnt - Strategy Be strategic: some crops have more impacts and potential than othersFocus on improvement: better, not best agricultural practices; encourage innovation, not complianceFocus on the most serious impacts: soil erosion, effluents, habitat conversion activities cause most environmental impactsBe open: not enough effort made to collect/adapt lessons from around the world
18Lessons learnt - Stakeholders Work with producers, consumers, markets and governments, and use carrots and sticksNeed to work with drivers of changeFarmers and communities create most GAPs400 buyers are key, more than millions of consumers: need to engage industry
19Lessons learnt - Incentives Target farmer incentives and disencentives when designing GAP programmesGAPs increase product quality and reduces risk; GAP can work without market incentivesMost GAP pay for themselves, though not allDifferent agro-ecologies, institutional and market contexts = different GAP priorities
204. Possible Joint Action Areas - Global - Provide information on GAP schemes: who, what, how, incentives, cost, benefits…GAP comparative databaseGAP websiteDefine global principles of GAP11 components – need more work ?
21Possible Joint Action Areas - Local - Support local translation of principles into appropriate practices and indicatorsFAO may bring:1- Knowledge range (on policies, practices, impacts)2- Facilitate multistakeholder negotiations on GAPs for a commodity/farming system3- Capacity building: trainer of trainers & farmers
22Where could a GAP approach be most useful ? “From the top”: when private company wants to improve its GAP standards in a meaningful way“From the bottom”: help farmer groups integrate markets (technical advice on practices and managerial advice on commercialization)“Support level”: help interested govnt understand implications, define policies and build capacity
23Conclusion : key words !GAP : Old wine in new bottles ? Or…working better together? It’s about INTEGRATIONWin-win situations for consumers, markets and farmers. It’s about NEGOTIATIONUltimately, a matter of policy choice for govts, minimizing trade-offs. It’s about SELECTIONPractical, flexible approaches in GAP worskhop… It’s about IMPLEMENTATION
24…have a fruitful workshop ! hope this has provided useful background info to inform your discussions.