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Loretta Sonn, FAO Agriculture Department

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1 Loretta Sonn, FAO Agriculture Department
Good Agricultural Practices standards : a Way Towards Safe and Sustainable Agriculture? Loretta Sonn, FAO Agriculture Department Wageningen Seminar on Certification and Regulations for Food Safety, 31 May 2005 good morning ASP – most know me am going to present to you some bakcground and what we came up with as our working concept for GAP basically drawn from the Working concept doc

2 1. World Challenges so with these developments happening , what about FAO starting working more closely on the issue about 2-3 years ago with the development of a b c

3 Over 800 millions undernourished

4 Human-induced soil degradation in the world

5 Certification and standards of GAP
for whom... where do we want to go ?

6 Agriculture challenge in the XXIst century
How to make agricultural systems in developing countries more sustainable, in a world where food supply chains are ever more globalized?

7 Developments in Ag. Sector
Demand by consumers, retailers, processors Food safety, quality, nutrition Environmental impact of agriculture Response by farmers adopting practices/codes Improve livelihoods Support by governments and institutions Regulations Sustainable agriculture policies Research, extension, education, credit, infrastructure What are different stakeholders doing about it ?

8 GAP: evolution of concept
For decades: extension and research guidelines on “good practices” More recent trend: GAP in food markets - growing number of “GAP” codes & standards - privatization of standards Renewed attention as entry point for food safety & quality in food chain So how does GAP fit in this and what is new under the sun

9 Simple assumption behind the multiplication of GAP standards…
Good production practices at farm level can make a big difference the simple assumption for this renewed interest in GAP is that : ... in contributing to meeting the challenges for ag in the 21st cent

10 Can codes support sustainable ag.?
Private certification and standards (e.g.: EUREP, retail…) Competitive advantage - not all farmers can meet Focus more on impact on product than on sustainability Public legislation and policies (e.g. : int’l, extension, research) Society-driven – broader sustainability priorities Int’l public good or local, small farmer-adapted But lack financial resources Fair trade, organic A mix of both Provide capacity building. Environmental and social aspects But market share may be limited in longer term I will not expand too much on this after andrew s presentation but One can broadly distinguish (SKIP THIS SLIDE IF HE USED IT)

11 Micro level Farmers incentives to adopt
Economic: price premium, market access; access to inputs; stabilize yield, increase productivity, reduce losses, increase farm asset value... Regulatory/Legal: ascertain property rights to scare resources; reduce liability... Human/social capital: expand skill sets, reduce community tensions... why should farmers adopt GAP i\ncentives will of course vary depending on the contents of the Gap codes and so will disencentives, but we can mention ....

12 … which means … that farmers have many incentives to apply GAPs whether or not that gives them access to segregated markets or price premiums which means what ? that..... (I would invite to check the annex of the Working concept doc which is drawn from the very interesting paper on the range of incentives prepared for the EC last year?

13 Micro level - Problems Too many standards and codes
Opportunities, but hard for small farmers to meet standards (cost, investments, paperwork) & certification fees Not always a price premium Different scopes of GAP Are food safety/quality and food security/sustainability GAPs compatible or contradictory? so – any problem ? yes, because many concerns are raised about the multiplication of GAP-related standards Wide scope of activities related to food safety, food quality, env impacs, healther impacts(farm labour), …

14 Macro level - Challenges Facing Developing Countries
• ‘Traditional’ competitiveness factors (macroeconomic stability, productivity, logistics, reliability) haven’t gone away ! • ... they are frequently as/more important as standards in determining participation and outcomes • Tightening/proliferation of standards coinciding with significant downward international price pressures • Standards reinforce other strengths and weaknesses at production unit and supply chain levels

15 Macro level - Challenges Facing Developing Countries(2)
Alignment/harmonization with int’l/EU/US official standards is only a preliminary part of the challenge Private safety, quality, and social requirements typically more demanding and more consistently enforced than public SPS standards (both int’l and domestic)

16 Macro level Special issues for poor/ very small countries
Generally weak technical/admin capacities • Lack of budgetary resources • Difficulty of determining/prioritizing needs • Little support from international buyers • Exceptionally vulnerable to crisis • Need regional arrangements ?

17 2. And FAO…? Development of a GAP Approach
so with these developments happening , what about FAO starting working more closely on the issue about 2-3 years ago with the development of a b c

18 a. Definition of a GAP approach
addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability inclusive of food safety and quality focusing on GAP-primary production (whilst considering the supply chain and institutional context) more than GMP/GHP, etc taking account voluntary and regulatory aspects within a given incentive and agro-ecology context

19 b. “Global Principles of GAP”
Form 11 components of ag. practices Identify hazards to be avoided Identify outcomes to be promoted = Provide a basis for the development of codes of practice for individual production systems

20 c. Country level assistance
Support translation of principles into locally appropriate practices and indicators 1- Knowledge (policies, ag. practices, impacts) 2- Facilitate multistakeholder negotiations on GAPs for a commodity/farming system 3- Capacity building

21 3. Lessons learnt - Strategy
Be strategic: some crops have more impacts and potential than others Focus on improvement: encourage innovation, not compliance Focus on the most serious impacts: 8-10 activities cause most environmental impacts Be open: not enough effort made to collect/adapt lessons from around the world

22 Lessons learnt - Stakeholders
Work with producers, consumers, markets and governments Work with drivers of change Farmers & communities create most GAPs 400 buyers are key: need to engage industry

23 Lessons learnt - Incentives
Target farmer incentives and disencentives when designing GAP programmes GAPs increase product quality & reduce risk; GAP can work without market incentives Most GAP pay for themselves, though not all Different agro-ecologies, institutional and market contexts = different GAP priorities

24 …thank you for your attention
hope this has provided useful background info to inform your discussions.

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