Presentation on theme: "Human Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Growth and Development Hill Country CommunityMHMR Center
2Children must pass through several stages, or take specific steps on their road to becoming adults.
3How do children develop? Children grow and change in four ways:PhysicallyIntellectuallyEmotionallySocially
4Physical development is the way a child’s body grows Physical development is the way a child’s body grows. It is normal for children to grow at different rates. For example, some might walk at 11 months and some might walk at 16 months.
5Intellectual development involves a child’s thinking Intellectual development involves a child’s thinking. Children learn to think by undertaking challenging tasks. Reasoning their way through different tasks helps children learn.
6Emotional growth involves the development of a child’s feelings Emotional growth involves the development of a child’s feelings. A child learns what it feels like to be sad, angry, hurt, confident, excited, and happy.
7Social development is the way a child learns to work, play, and interact with other people.
9Early ChildhoodDuring early childhood, ages 1-4, children make enormous gains in the development of their concepts of self and the ways they interact with family and friends. For the 1-year old, mobility is a goal to be mastered. By age 4, mobility has become the means for exploration and increasing independence.
10The 1-year old, imitates sounds and gestures; the 4-year old has mastered most of the complex rules of spoken language and can communicate thoughts and ideas. The 1-year old learns from what he can see, hear, feel, and manipulate physically; the 4-year old integrates the use of mental symbols and the development of fantasy.
11The 1-year old is on the threshold of developing a sense of self, separate from his parents and other caregivers; the 4 year-old begins to pursue relationships outside the family as an individual in his own right.
13Middle ChildhoodMiddle childhood (ages 5-10) is a time of major cognitive development and mastery of cognitive and physical skills. Children in middle childhood significantly increase their vocabulary; enhance their imagination, creativity, and self-care skills; make advances in motor skills development; and improve their ability to cooperate, play fairly follow social rules, think morally, and use humor. Concrete operational thinking predominates, with concern mainly for the present and limited ability for abstract or future-oriented thinking, or for placing their experiences into a historical context.
14Children frequently compare themselves with others and are initially “me” centered, or egocentric, but increasingly they recognize other people’s feelings. Children in middle childhood continue the progression from dependence on parents and other caregivers to increasing independence, which includes learning new skills and making new friends at school.
16AdolescenceAdolescents are in transition from the dependency of childhood to the independence and responsibility of early adulthood.As adolescents progress through early, middle, and late adolescence, self-esteem, mood, body image, cognitive development, family relationships, interactions at school and with peers, and participation in health-risk behaviors are critical developmental considerations.
17Developmental Focus in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence Stages of AdolescenceDevelopmental FocusEarly Adolescence(females years; males 12-14)IndependenceAbstract thoughtBody imageSame - sex peer groupsMiddle Adolescence(females years; males 15 – 16 years)Peer groups, teamsMoralityOpposite – sex peersSexual drivesSexual identityLate Adolescence(females/males 17 – 21 yearsVocational plansIntimacy
18Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral0-6 monthsNeeds to be touched and held physicallyCaregiver feeds childFeeding pattern is establishedHas sucking and grasping reflexesReaches toward objects and grasps themMakes large muscle movements (arms and legs)Is able to follow objects and focusRolls overSupports headSleeps a lotNo bladder or bowel controlRapid physical growth changeVocalizes (makes cooing sounds and chuckles)Vocalizes spontaneouslyDiscovers s/he has impact on environment (e.g., if s/he cries, caregiver will come)Establishes attachment/bonding with caregivers (caregiver and child get to know each other – learn to read each other’s cues and become emotionally attached to one another)Crying and smilingComforts self with thumb or pacifierLearns to truss that basic needs will be metConcerned with satisfaction of needsDistinguishes between physical self and physical otherRecognizes caregiversVery dependent upon caregivers for fulfillment of needsInitiates social contact (e.g., smiles when caregiver appears)Sees him/herself as the center of the worldHas no sense of right or wrong
19Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral6 months to 1 ½ yearsFeeds self with a spoonStands and walks“dances” to musicSits by him/herselfHas precise thumb and finger graspCan stack 2 or more blocksUses one or two words to name things or actionsSays words like “Mama” and “Dada”Point to familiar thingsPoints to at least one body partCurious about everything (explores his/her world)Realizes an object can exist when out of sight and will look for it (e.g. drops things from high chair and looks for it)Hugs caregiverDoes not like separation from caregiverExpresses several emotions clearly but is unable to identify themTrusts caregiversSees him/herself as permanent with enduring qualities (e.g., male versus female)Plays simple games (e.g. peek-a-boo, patty cake)Extends attachment to people other than caregiversDeveloping some independence from caregivers (can meet some of his/her own needs e.g., can feed him/herself and reach for objects)Sees him/herself as the center of the worldHas no sense of right or wrong
20Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral1 ½ yearsTo3 yearsWalks up and down stairs (one step at a time)Rides a tricycleThrows and kicks a ballCan put on a simple garmentCan hold a crayon with fingersIncreased eye-hand coordination (e.g., simple puzzles)Can draw a complete circleHandles small toys skillfullyBladder and bowel controlCan draw a partial person (e.g., head and body)Talks in sentencesSpeech is understandable half of the timeUses pronouns for self and others (e.g., I, you)Can express feelings verballyShows sympathyRefers to self as “I” or “me”Can be separate from caregiversRecognizes people outside of immediate environmentRole of caregivers is crucial to the development of self (e.g., will imitate adults behavior)Plays with children (e.g., plays cooperatively sometimes)Washes and dries own handsToilet trainedTests boundaries and limitations (e.g., learns to say “no”)Learns to consider needs and feeling of othersWorld expands beyond home to the “outside world”Beginning to learn about right and wrong
21Children ages 0-3 with social and emotional delays are treated through the Early Childhood Intervention programs. ECI
22Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral3 to 6 yearsHops on one foot repeatedlySkips and dances wellGood balance and coordinationHas refined motor skills (e.g., can draw a square with good corners)Prints a few lettersCan draw a complete personCan complete a puzzleTalks in sentencesIs completely understandableDefines familiar wordsHas developed certain likes and dislikesUnderstands cause and effect relationships only in relation to his/her own needs, wants or experiences (e.g., hot stove hurts me)Expresses ideas, asks questions, and engages in discussionsCan identify pictures of happy and sad people appropriatelyIdentifies with caregivers and likes to imitate themForms images of selfCan be further away (physically) from caregiversFrequently overwhelmed by feelings (s/he can experience feelings of doubt and shame)Dresses and undresses without help except for tying shoesPlays role in “make-believe” playFollows simple game rulesNeeds choices and s/he wants more independenceCan share and take turnsOften has “best friends”Likes to show off skills to adultsWill test authorityCan identify differences in self and others (e.g., gender, color of eyes and hair)Protects self and stands up for his/her rightsIs concerned with what behavior works to bring about reward or punishmentStill needs outside controls and his/her conscience relatively unformed
23Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral6 years to 12 yearsCan play sports and develop new skillsEnergeticHas a large appetiteHeight and weight increasing at a steady rateIncreased coordination and strengthBody proportions becoming similar to an adult'sFine motor coordination well-developed (e.g., writing and drawing skills)Highly verbal (e.g. tells jokes, makes puns)Asks fact-oriented questions (e.g. wants to know “how”, “why” and “when”)Can deal with abstract ideasJudges success based on ability to read, write and do arithmeticWants to develop skills and become competentEnjoys projects that are task oriented (e.g. sewing, woodwork)Learns to think systematically and generally about concrete objectsLearns the concept of “past”, “present”, and “future”Acts very independent and self-assured but can be childish and silly at timesSelf is partly defined by school environment (personality is more defined)Likes affection from adultsMore independent but wants caregivers to be present to helpCan identify what s/he is feelingCan distinguish between wishes, motives, and actionsParticipates in community activitiesEnjoys working and playing with othersHas friendsPlays mostly with same sex peersCan be aloneStrong group identity (e.g., Brownies)Learns to achieve and competeImitates and identifies with same-sex adultBegins to experience conflict between parents’ values and those of peersHas strong sense of fairnessRules are important and must be followed (I.e., breaking rules is bad)
24Developmental Stages for Children/Youth Physical DevelopmentIntellectualDevelopmentEmotionalSocialMoral12 to 18 yearsGrowth spurtsDevelops sexual characteristics and has sexual drivesNew needs in personal hygiene, menstrual products, razors)Achieves impressive changes in cognitive development (I.e., able to think and reason)Able to reason, generate general principles and test them out against evidenceCapable of introspection and of perceiving differences between how things are and how they may beBegins to consider and sometimes make career choicesGrowth in ability to think abstractly and utilize imagination in solving problemsIdentifies with significant others outside of homeDevelops sexual identityPart child, part adult (e.g., “Go away, come closer” messageDevelops independence (e.g., “I dare you to tell me what to do!)Likely to show extreme mood swingsLess dependent on family for affection and emotional supportStrives to define self as separate individualOften feels misunderstoodMay engage in part-time workEnjoys many social activities (e.g., at school)Relies heavily on peers (e.g., tries to conform to peer group norms)Has close friendships and emotional involvementsExperiences conflict with parents (e.g., expectations)Experiments with sex-role expectations and standardsChallenges values of homeDevelops personal morality codeWhat becomes important is whether the behavior conforms to the behavior of others, not its inherent rightness or wrongnessBelief that good behavior is maintained by some presence of authority
25Areas of Concern that may or may not be indicators of future mental health issues in Early Childhood Bedtime StrugglesDifficult Behavior at MealtimeGorging, Begging for Food, Refusing FoodParents Who Limit Independence in Self-CareTemper TantrumsCritical or Detached ParentsVulnerable Child SyndromeDifficulty Forming FriendshipsChronically Aggressive Children
26Bedtime StrugglesWhen a child refuses to go to or stay in bed, consider the following:The child may not be tired because of irregular schedulesParents may believe their child needs more sleep than is necessaryThe child may need more adult assistance in going to bedConsistent behavioral limits are not being maintained during the dayFears may be causing the child to resist going to bedParents may be having trouble separating from their child at bedtime, which could be creating a sleep problem
27Difficult Behavior at Mealtime If a child demonstrates difficult behavior at mealtime, ask about parental expectations regarding behavior and eating, what else is going on during mealtimes (e.g., whether the TV is on, whether children are included in conversations), and general behavioral problems.
28Gorging, Begging for Food, Refusing Food Gorging, begging for food, and refusing food can be signs of underlying family conflict or other psychosocial, developmental, or neurological problems.
29Parents Who Limit Independence in Self Care Parents who are having trouble allowing their child to mature may be underestimating the child’s abilities. Parenting groups or classes, play groups that parents attend, and other opportunities to talk with parents of children of similar age can help parents develop realistic goals. Discuss the risk of oppositional behavior resulting from parental interference in self – care.
30Excessive Temper Tantrums Excessive temper tantrums may reflect problems with social, self-care or verbal skills. Disruptions in sleeping, eating, and care-giving routines can intensify tantrums.
31Critical or Detached Parents Parents who have low involvement or negative interactions with their child may be exhausted or overly stressed, or may be repeating patterns form their own childhood. They may have a mental disorder such as depression or substance abuse.
32Vulnerable Child Syndrome Explore parents’ feelings if they perceive their child as special or vulnerable, or if they have trouble tolerating their child’s negative emotions. Ask parents, “How does your child’s behavior make you feel? What does it make you worry about? What does your child’s behavior remind you of in your past?” A traumatic past (e.g., infertility, fetal or newborn loss) may interfere with a parent’s ability to allow the child to feel frustrated. Parents may need a referral to a mental health professional for therapy.
33Difficulty Forming Friendships For shy children or children who have difficulty making friends, suggest low-stress, structured play dates such as inviting a friend over to watch a movie, make cookies, etc. Help parents reinforce appropriate social behaviors to help build children’s social group. A short, successful play date is better than one that lasts too long.
34Chronically Aggressive Children For chronically aggressive children who do not respond to appropriate parental strategies, assess potential contributing factors: life stresses; neglect or abuse at home or in child care, inadequate sleep; disruptions in routines; exposure to aggression (including family violence), skill deficits, especially in expressive language or fine motor areas; hearing loss; and signs of hyperactivity/impulsivity or depression. Evaluate families for overt and covert encouragement of aggression (ignoring, speak of it as a sign of strength, suggest using it as a problem-solving strategy).
35If these issues remain persistent and problematic it may be indicative of underlying psychological, neurological or medical concerns that require further evaluation.
36Areas of Concern that may or may not be indicators of future mental health issues in Middle ChildhoodInhibited childrenEnuresis (bed-wetting)AggressionBullyingDifficult Adjustment to SchoolSubstance Abuse
37Inhibited ChildrenIf children avoid new or challenging activities, help them evaluate the possible consequences, both good and bad, of participating in these activities. A stepping stone approach toward new activities can make them less frightening or intimidating to children. If children’s progress toward age-appropriate friendships and activities stops or their anxiety becomes overwhelming, hey should be evaluated by a mental health professional.
38EnuresisBed-wetting is common, affecting 40 % of all 3-year olds. It is less common in school-age children, occurring in 20% of 5 year-olds, 10% of 6 year-olds, and 3% of 12 year-olds (Schmitt, 1992). Most children who wet the bed overcome the problem between ages of 6-10 if there is no underlying medical cause. Medical causes are present in fewer than 1% of children with enuresis. Emotional difficulties may contribute to bed-wetting. In cases of abuse, the bed-wetting may be a strategy for keeping the abuser away.
39AggressionChildren may exhibit aggressive behaviors during the course of their development. For some children, aggressive behavior may interfere with functioning at home, school, or with friends. Helping children recognize feelings of anger and helping them find ways to manage their anger can prevent the development of significant aggressive behavior problems.
40BullyingApproximately 1 out of 7 school children is either a bully or a victim of bullying. (Batsche and Moore, 2000) Bullying is generally learned and can be effectively addressed, particularly if interventions occur when children are young. Children who are bullied may have low self esteem, be overly anxious, or have trouble expressing themselves.
41Difficult Adjustment to School While helping parents understand that their child will adjust to school at his own rate, assist them in determining whether the child’s adjustment is too difficult (e.g., as evidenced by mood problems, anxiety symptoms, an increase in somatic complaints, and school refusal
42Substance AbuseDuring middle childhood, some children begin to use alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. The rate of substance use among children increases significantly between the 4th and 6th grades. The transition from elementary to middle school/junior high school increases the child’s risk for substance use (Gleaton, 1999).
43If these issues remain persistent and problematic it may be indicative of underlying psychological, neurological or medical concerns that require further evaluation.
44Areas of Concern that may or may not be indicators of future mental health issues in Adolescence Academic Difficulties and Low Self-EsteemMood ProblemsEating DisordersPregnancy, Parenting, and AbortionSexual Abuse and Sexual AssaultSTD’sExcessive Influence of PeersAbsenteeism and Dropping OutAdolescent Substance Abuse
45Academic Difficulties and Low Self Esteem Adolescents who experienced academic difficulties in the early grades are at particular risk for self-esteem problems. Encourage parents to talk to the teacher, counselor, principal if they are concerned about performance and low self-esteem. Encourage parents to support their adolescent in developing other skills or talents (e.g., artistic, athletic) to enhance self-esteem. Persistent low self esteem may indicate depression or emerging personality disorders.
46Mood ProblemsParental complaints about their adolescent’s moodiness or mood swings are common. Sometimes parents are simply describing parent-adolescent conflict, with the adolescent making angry responses to things the parent says or does. Help them learn to negotiate conflicts and disagreements. If the adolescent reports feeling sad or bored most of the time or having frequent bad moods or marked mood swings, the possibility of a mood disorder should be considered. Some adolescents complain primarily of physical symptoms. Insomnia, excessive worry, academic and social difficulties, and significant risk-taking behaviors are other symptoms of mood problems.
47Eating DisordersEating problems can result from excessive concerns about body shape, size, and weight and from an unhealthy body image. Eating disorders are more common in females. In high risk groups (e.g. adolescents who are dieting, adolescents who participate in sports that encourage leanness), special efforts should be directed toward increasing knowledge about healthy and regular physical activity and promoting a healthy body image.
48Pregnancy, Parenting, and Abortion The U. S. has one of the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy among developed countries (Singh and Darroch, 2000). Parenting during adolescence can disrupt social and emotion growth. Adolescent parents are at risk for poor educational, vocational, and financial outcomes.
49Sexual Abuse and Sexual Assault In one study, 8% of all women and 16% of women whose first episode of sexual intercourse occurred at age 15 or younger reported that their first sexual encounter was not voluntary (Abma et al., 1997). Retrospective studies indicate that the most likely age for children and adolescents to experience sexual abuse is between 7 and 13 years (Bachman et al., 1988). The mental health professional should be aware of the broad range of consequences of sexual abuse and sexual assault, both physical and psychological (e.g., psychosomatic complaints, depressive symptoms, acting-out behaviors, acute stress disorder, PTSD, eating disorders, dissociative disorders)
50STDsAccording to a report from the Institute of Medicine, adolescents are disproportionately affected by STDs. Approximately 3 million adolescents acquire an STD each year, and many have long-term health problems as a result (Eng and Butler, 1997). According to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey about 42% of sexually active adolescents reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse (Kann et al., 2000).
51Excessive Influence of Peers In general, adolescents choose friends who are similar to themselves (e.g., an adolescent with anti-social inclination is more likely to join a peer group with these tendencies, an adolescent who values high academic performance is more likely to choose academically oriented friends. If parents are concerned that their adolescent is unduly influenced by his peers the following problems may exist:Parents demonstrate “passive neglect”The adolescent lacks self confidence and has a poor self image.
52Absenteeism and Dropping Out Many adolescents feel disconnected from school. This feeling can be caused by many factors (e.g., poor academic skills, school failure and resulting feelings of incompetence, negative friendships, problems with teachers/peers, problems at home, emotional or behavioral problems). For many adolescents, a key to connecting them to school is enhancing their involvement in activities that lead to feelings of competence and that offer a connections with peers and adults who have a positive influence on them.
53Adolescent Substance Abuse Several factors increase the risk of adolescent substance abuse. These include psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression) and family problems (e.g., parental substance abuse, family violence, abuse, neglect). Be on the lookout for substance abuse especially when the following are present:Aggressive behaviorSmoking or alcohol experimentationSexual activity starting in early or middle adolescencePsychiatric disorder(s)Suicidal intent or history of suicide attemptPhysical or sexual victimizationDelinquency or school failureFamily history of school failure
54If these issues remain persistent and problematic it may be indicative of underlying psychological, neurological or medical concerns that require further evaluation.
56We spend the first 12 months of our children’s lives teaching them to walk and talk, and then the next 24 years telling them to sit down and shut up! (Anonymous)
57Parenting falls into roughly three recognizable stages. Early Stage: families with young children (under ages 10-12)Middle Stage: families with teenagers (13-18)Late Stage: parents are sending their adult children to college, careers, or marriage (the launching stage) (18 and older)
58Early StageThe birth of a first child requires a tremendous emotional and physical investment for the couple. A man commonly feels a loss of companionship from his mate, but his self-concept is enhanced by the birth of the child. He focus his energy on the establishment of his career with a strong sense of being the family provider. A woman’s dominant role becomes that of parent, usually perceiving career as a secondary role. In this stage, balancing the parents’ needs with the child’s fosters a child’s health self-concept.
59Sources of Conflict in the Early Stage Marital expectations are reinforced, adjusted or changed.In-law relationships may be strained as parents relinquish emotional care-taking to their child’s spouse.Division of labor between the couple comes into focus more clearly, often creating friction. (Men’s willingness to accept their share of the work greatly reduces the conflict.)
60Middle StageCaring for teen children requires patience and energy. Studies show that teens involved with sports and other extra-curricular activities are much less likely to abuse drugs and alcohol. Consequently, parents with active teens find themselves spending a good deal of time shuttling children and attending competitive events. The stress of balancing work and family, though present in all stages, peaks late in the middle stage.
61Sources of Conflict in the Middle Stage Parents are defining marital expectations to the stresses of children.Teen years put the most stress on families. Teens test boundaries and demand their independence.As the parent sees their care-giving role diminishing, they struggle emotionally one minute looking forward to the launching stage, the next minute hoping to postpone the launching.Parents may disagree on appropriate boundaries for their ½ child ½ adult.
62Late StageLate stage couples face changing health, both theirs and their parents. Occasionally, middle or early stage couples find themselves caring for elderly parents, too. The daughter or daughter in-law is generally the main caregiver for the elderly parent. Another late-stage concern is sending the child on to college, career, or marriage. Parents need to give conscious and unconscious permission for the adult child to leave. Giving mixed messages invites indecision, uncertainty, and even failure for the adult child. The parents must make the transition from caregivers to friends or advisors, generally not an easy task.
63Sources of Conflict in the Late Stage Couples examine retirement and resources available for old age. Adult children may request financial assistance, creating a strain on the late-stage budget.
64These stages are viewed as the “normal” way families develop and relationships unfold. Family, personal, and societal expectations make deviating from the norm stressful.