Presentation on theme: "DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD HPW 3C1 Living and Working with Children Mrs. Filinov."— Presentation transcript:
DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD HPW 3C1 Living and Working with Children Mrs. Filinov
Childhood Disorders Children's mental and emotional disorders are problems that affect not only their behavior, emotions, moods, or thoughts, but can also affect the entire family as well. They can generally be treated with medications or psychotherapy (or a combination of both). Many childhood disorders are often labeled as developmental disorders or learning disorders. Generally, the childhood disorders, refer to mental and emotional problems that most often occur and are diagnosed when children are school aged or younger. Usually, symptoms start during infancy or in early childhood, although some of the disorders may develop throughout adolescence.
Forms and Causes of Childhood Disorders Brain-based disorders are caused by neurochemical problems or structural abnormalities of the brain. They can be innate (i.e., appearing at or shortly after birth); or They may result from a physical stress such as illness or injury, or an emotional stress, such as trauma or loss Behavioral problems, on the other hand, are outward signs of difficulty displayed at home, at school, or among friends in an otherwise physically healthy child. Behavioral problems may also result from physical or emotional stress. Estimates of the current prevalence suggest that between 17.6% and 22% of children have symptoms of one or more childhood disorders; 15% of American children suffer from a mental illness that is severe enough to cause some level of functional impairment.
Major Depression Is not strictly a childhood disorder, but children do become depressed. Major depression is diagnosed in children of all ages, but appears to increase significantly throughout adolescence. By age 18, prevalence rates appear to be 20%, with depression found in girls more often than boys
Bipolar Disorder Involves alternating periods of depression and mania (high energy levels that result in a decreased need for sleep, talkativeness, impulsivity, excessive pleasure-seeking behaviors, etc.). In children, mania often looks more like an extreme temper tantrum or severe irritability than the euphoric, hyperactive condition characteristic of adults. Children may experience varying degrees of symptom severity, timing between mood fluctuations, et cetera. Some studies have indicated prevalence rates of Bipolar Disorder among children as high as 1% (e.g., meaning that one in every hundred children may display some signs of bipolar disorder)!
Anxiety Disorders Are the most common mental illnesses among youngsters today, with prevalence rates ranging between 10% and 20%. Children with anxiety disorders are more likely to develop (or to continue experiencing) anxiety disorders in adulthood, and have an increased risk of developing major depression, attempting suicide, and being hospitalized for mental illnesses. One particular type of anxiety disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (a combination of obsessions, or intrusive, repetitive, unwanted thoughts; and compulsions, or anxiety-reducing behavior such as repeated checking or counting) is found in about.5% to 2% of children and adolescents.
Intellectual Disabilities Intellectual disability is a specific type of disability. It is caused by limited mental capacity (intelligence). An estimated 1-3% of the population have intellectual disabilities. Limited mental capacity makes it difficult to develop important mental abilities. This includes reasoning, planning, thinking, and judgment. Children with intellectual disabilities develop more slowly than other children. They usually sit, walk, and talk much later than other children. The delayed development means they do not act their age.
The Causes of Intellectual Disability The causes of intellectual disabilities can be grouped into four categories: 1. Medical conditions; 2. Brain injury; 3. Genetic conditions; 4. Psychiatric conditions; The leading causes are Autism, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Among these, the only preventable cause is fetal alcohol syndrome.
Signs and Symptoms of Intellectual Disability Delayed development such as sitting, crawling, standing, walking, or talking; Persistence of childlike behavior, possibly demonstrated in speaking style; Trouble understanding social rules and customs such as taking turns, or waiting in line; Failure to appreciate and avoid dangerous situations such as playing in the street, or touching a hot stove; A lack of curiosity or interest in the world around them; Difficulty learning new information despite significant effort and repetition; Difficulty learning new skills despite significant practice; Difficulty solving ordinary, simple problems; Trouble remembering things; Difficulty meeting educational demands; Excessive behavioral problems such as impulsivity and poor frustration tolerance.
Support & Help for Children with Intellectual Disabilities Intellectual disabilities are not illnesses. As such, there are no treatments per se. Instead, children are assisted to achieve their full potential so they may function in an optimal manner. In this respect, we may speak of supportive rehabilitation, rather than of treatment. Individualized support plan (ISP),for preschool children - to create a match between a child's environment, and their abilities. For school-aged children, intellectual challenges are addressed via an individualized educational plan (IEP)- outlines goals for the student to achieve