What Motivates Us? General Theories of Motivation The Pyramid of Human Motivation
Definition of Motivation The process that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior to satisfy physiological or psychological needs or wants; The energizing and directing of behavior, the force behind our – desire for food, – our longing for sexual intimacy, – desire to achieve.
Two directions of Motivation Intrinsic (Internal) Motivation - The desire to perform an act because it is satisfying in its own right. Extrinsic (External) Motivation - The desire to perform an act to gain a reward or avoid undesirable consequences.
General Theories of Motivation Instinct Theory – The notion that human behavior is motivated by certain innate tendencies, or instincts, shared by all individuals. Drive Theory – The notion that physiological needs arouse tension that motivates action. Arousal Theory – The notion that motivation comes from a need to achieve and maintain an optimum level of arousal. Incentive Theory – The notion that we behave in ways that produce a valued inducement. Need Satisfaction Theory (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)
Instinct Theories Instinct - An inborn, unlearned, fixed pattern of behavior that is characteristic of an entire species. Instinct Theory: human behavior is motivated by automatic, involuntary and unlearned responses
Drive Reduction Theory Suggests that a need creates an unpleasant state of arousal or tension which, in turn, creates a drive that impels the organism to engage in behavior that will satisfy the need, reduce tension, and establish homeostasis. The Internal Pushes (Biology)- Most physiological needs create psychological drives that motivate need satisfaction. The External Pulls (Culture) -- Not only are we pushed by our internal drives, we are also pulled by external incentives.
Example: No water for some time Disturbance in chemical balance of your body fluid Creating a biological “NEED” for water Consequence of need is “ DRIVE” is thirst Drive motivates you to find and drink water Need of water is met so the drive of thrist is reduced Maintaince of “HOMEOSTASIS”
HOMEOSTASIS – tendency of an organisms to keep their physiological systems at a stable, steady level – Means “EQUILIBRIUM”
Arousal Theory Arousal theory states that we need to maintain arousal (or, at least, an optimal state of arousal -- which may vary from person to person).
We are motivated to behave that maintain or restore an ideal or optimal level of arousal We try to increase arousal when it is too low And want to decrease it when it is too high
Incentive Theory What motivates people are external rewards, or incentives. What desirable consequences will my behavior produce?