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Slide 1 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 Life Span Development - Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Old CHAPTER 8 Life Span Development - Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Old
Slide 2 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Marked by taking on financial responsibilities, making career choices, beginning social relationships, entering marriage, becoming a parent Challenges and accomplishments of earlier developmental stages have assisted in preparation of individual for responsibilities of adult maturity Unrealistic impression of adulthood are replaced with realistic expectations and anticipations Stages of Growth and Development
Slide 3 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Physical Characteristics Body is at its optimal level of functioning. Strength, energy, and endurance are not at their peak. Mid 20’s, body functions are fully developed and peak of muscular strength occurs About age 50 declines in physical capabilities occur Physical appearance are influenced by hereditary, environment and general state of wellness Females usually reach maximum height by 16 to 17 years of age; males may continue to grow until 18 to 20 years of age.
Slide 4 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Physical Characteristics Between 30 and 45 height is stable then begins to decline because the disk settles Increase in fatty tissue leading to weight gain, decrease in muscle strength and stabilization of reaction time Visual acuity is keenest at about age 20 and does not begin to decline until age 40 Diet plays an important role throughout. Heart disease and cancer are major concerns o Cholesterol maybe controlled by diet o Low fat, high fiber and low cholesterol diets for preventive measure against cancer (stomach, breast)
Slide 5 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Physical Characteristics Physical fitness Regular, paced exercise increases heart and lung capacity, lowers BP, helps control weight, enhances body function, and improves emotional health Sexual maturity is reached Sexual drive continues for both male and female throughout adulthood
Slide 6 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Psychosocial Development About 95% of Americans marry at some point. Dual-career lifestyle has affected both the home and workplace. Decision to start a family Family development and harmony are major goals. Concern about individual members’ health and safety continue as a prime focus within the family as a unit Age of individuals, job security, place in the community, and healthy patterns of living are associated with healthy family adjustment Physical and mental health of one family member affects all family members Stages of Growth and Development
Slide 7 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Psychosocial Development Erickson identified early intimacy versus isolation Intimacy is ability to relate one’s deepest hopes and concerns to another person Intimacy is capacity of person to accept closeness of another person Intimacy leads to commitment, sharing, and compromise The “virtue” that develops is virtue of love, or mutuality of devotion between partners who have chosen to share their lives
Slide 8 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Psychosocial Development Resolve conflicting demands of intimacy, competitiveness, and distance; develop an ethical sense which Erickson considers mark of the adult Opposite of intimacy or negative resolution leads to isolation and self-absorption, or distancing oneself from intimate relationships
Slide 9 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Cognitive Development Piaget saw adulthood as actively developing the formal operational approach to learning and problem solving He believed that the same cognitive operations apply throughout adulthood to a larger, more expansive list of experiences. Adults tend to think in an integrative way Stages of Growth and Development
Slide 10 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Health Promotion Nutrition Few total number of calories needed because adults have completed biophysical growth Calorie needs vary based on age, gender, size, physical activity, metabolism and stress Rest and Sleep Most adults function with 7 to 9 hours of restorative sleep. Productivity is increased with adequate rest periods during the day Adequate rest is needed for pregnant women for herself and her baby
Slide 11 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Health Promotion Physical Health Annual physical health and dental exam For male a routine testicular examination and female an annual Pap smear is recommended Monthly breast exam for women older than 20 and a baseline mammogram between 35 and 40 Male o At 40 yearly PE includes DRE and at 50 PSA is done for prostate cancer Safety Accidents are leading cause of disability and death in this age group
Slide 12 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Growth and Development Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood Achieves independence, financial and social Maximizes personal worth and identity Develops meaningful and satisfying social relationships Assumes responsibilities and independent decision making Learns to balance personal needs and societal expectations Accepts self ad other Distinguishes physical attraction from love and permanent commitment Decides on a marriage, career, and children
Slide 13 Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Early Adulthood: 20 to 40 Years Physical Health Annual physical and dental examinations are recommended. Testicular examinations, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Pap smears, monthly breast self-exams, mammograms Safety Accidents are the leading cause of disability and death; injuries commonly result from work, vehicles, sports, and violence. Stages of Growth and Development
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