Bacteria Small in size, no nucleus or membranous organelles Cell wall Cocci Bacilli Spirilla Vibrios Gram-positive Gram-negative
Examples of bacterial diseases Streptococcal sore throat, chlamydia, bronchitis, bacterial meningitis, gonorrhea, syphilis, TB, some pneumonias, e. coli, Lyme disease Bacteria may secrete toxins or enzymes that destroy cells or interfere with cell funtion.
Anthrax Bacteria that, in some cases, leads to death B. anthracic Three types: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation (or respiratory)
Anthrax continued Lives in soil Humans become infected by handling infected products. Highly contagious but… Good news… It is rare in the U.S. Symptoms: Fever >100, flu-like symptoms, cough, chest discomfort, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, headaches, nausea, a sore that starts as a raised bump
Anthrax Treatment and Prevention Antibiotics soon after infection is vital Vaccine is available but not widely distributed. Anthrax as bioterrorism threat.
Cholera V. cholerae found in shallow wells, rivers, and streams – easily spread Not possible to spread from person to person Spreads through dense populations due to lack of cleanliness
Cholera WHO: estimates that 3-5 million cases occur each year 100,000 deaths Approximately 1 in 20 (5%) will develop severe disease and die.
Salmonella continued 42,000 cases reported every year. Causes diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps A result of contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.
Salmonella in the news… Current salmonella outbreak in peanut butter. Affecting 19 states so far
Preventing Salmonella Cook poultry, ground beef and eggs thoroughly Some foods not that obvious Thoroughly wash produce Watch for cross contamination Wash your hands.
Botulism Caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria Rare but serious – causes paralysis if left untreated. Five types of botulism: Foodborne Wound Infant Adult intestinal Iatrogenic
Botulism continued Botulism is found in soil 145 cases reported each year 15% Foodborne 65% Infant 20% wound
Botulism Symptoms include: Double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness. Antitoxin is available for treatment
Botulism prevention Proper food handling Especially in food preservation Be wary of dented, bulging cans Botulism’s not all bad….
Tetanus Acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin from Clostridium tetani bacteria. Usually enters the body through a wound The most common form of tetanus is generalized tetanus.
Tetanus First sign is trismus or lockjaw, then stiffness of the neck, difficulty swallowing and finally rigidity of abdominal muscles. Treatment / Prevention: Clean wounds thoroughly Get vaccinated Need booster every 10 years.
Pertussis AKA: Whooping cough or 100 day cough Bordetella pertussis Was one of the most common childhood diseases and major cause of childhood mortality
Pertussis Starts out like a cold But cough becomes more severe Cough characterized by high pitch whoop. Child may turn cyanotic, cough more at night, or even vomit due to coughing attack.
Streptococcus Strep throat Sore throat for more than 1 week Temperature >100.4 Pus on back of throat Possible rash However: Most sore throats are not caused by bacteria
Antibiotics Target bacterial cell wall Target cell membrane Inhibit protein synthesis targets in bacterial machinery Interfere with bacterial metabolism, DNA, and RNA synthesis
Antibiotic Resistance “One of the world’s most pressing public health problems.” (CDC, 2012) What exactly is it? Factors: Parental pressure Allergies Farming Time / money
“Friendly” Bacteria Most bacteria are non-pathogenic Some bacteria are beneficial Ex: Bacteria keeps yeast in check. Antibiotics kill bacteria; yeast infection occurs
What about yogurt? Yogurt with live acidophilus cultures: Help protect “good” bacteria Limits stomach upset
Probiotics Probiotics: “live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” (Chiodo, 2011, pg. 1) Dates back to Roman times Much more popular now Found in certain foods: Yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, kefir, miso, tempeh, some juices, soy beverages.
Prebiotics “Non-digestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms already in people’s colons.” (Chiodo, 2011, pg. 6) Found in artichokes, bananas, barley, berries, chicory, garlic, honey, legumes, leeks, oats, and onions.