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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow oxygen from the air.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow oxygen from the air."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow oxygen from the air to enter the blood and carbon dioxide from the blood to exit into the air. Inspiration –inhalation (breathing in) Expiration- exhalation ( breathing out) The Respiratory System ch14

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nose Functions Provides an airway for respiration Moistens and warms entering air Filters and cleans inspired air Resonating chamber for speech Detects odors in the airstream Respiratory mucosa-contains goblet cells that secrete mucus  Mucus o Stickiness traps inhaled particles o Lysozyme kills bacteria

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nasal cavity Vibrissae (guard hairs) – stiff hairs that filter large particles from the air Nasal cilia – hair-like projections that propel trapped particles towards the throat for digestion by digestive enzymes

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rich supply of capillaries warm the inspired air Nasal conchae – folds in the mucous membrane that increase air turbulence and ensures that most air contacts the mucous membranes Olfactory mucosa – mucous membranes that contain smell receptors

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.3c The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Pharynx (throat) Funnel shaped passageway that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx Three regions of the pharynx Nasopharynx – air passage Oropharynx – passageway for air, food, and drink Laryngopharynx – passageway for air, food, and drink

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Larynx (voice box) Functions : Keeps food and drink out of the airway Sound production Anatomical Features: Nine c-rings of hyaline cartilage form the framework of the larynx (the apex of this triangular box is called the Adam’ss apple Muscular walls aid in voice production and the swallowing reflex Glottis – the superior opening of the larynx Epiglottis – prevents food and drink from entering airway when swallowing False vocal cords – aid in closing the glottis when swallowing True vocal cords – produce sound when air passes between them

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Anatomy of the Larynx Figure 23.4

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Glottis Figure 23.5a, b

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Trachea (windpipe) Functions : Air passageway Cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air Anatomical features : Rings of hyaline cartilage – reinforce the trachea and keep it from collapsing when you inhale Traps inhaled debris and propels mucus up to the pharynx where it is swallowed

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Anatomy of the Trachea Figure 23.6a, b

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bronchi Function : Solely an air passageway Anatomical features : Left and right primary bronchi branch off from trachea Once the left and right primary bronchi enter the lungs they are subdivided into smaller tubes: Secondary bronchi (one for each lobe) → tertiary bronchi → bronchioles → terminal bronchioles → respiratory bronchioles → alveolar ducts → alveolar sacs

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.10a The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Lungs Left Divided into 2 lobes Smaller than the right lung Cardiac notch accommodates the heart Right Divided into 3 lobes Each lobe is separated by connective tissue and has its own arteries and veins. Serous membranes-cover the entire surface of the lungs and produce pleural fluid -enables the lungs to expand and contract with minimal friction Visceral –adheres to the surface of the lung Parietal- lines the thoracic cavity

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs Figure 23.7

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.10b The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Alveoli Alveolar sacs-clusters of alveoli Alveoli- the site of gas exchange which occurs between the air in the alveoli and capillaries Alveolar cells – allow for diffusion of gases & secrete surfactant- reduces the surface tension of fluid in the lungs and helps make (alveoli) more stable. This keeps them from collapsing when an individual exhales

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.12a-c Alveolar Organization

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Disorders and Conditions –Describe the following disorders in complete sentences in your notebook Include the following information for each disorder listed 1.Description of condition 2.Where it occurs in the respiratory system 3.If treatment is available List of Conditions: Upper respiratory TonsillitisLaryngitisBronchitis Common coldAsthmaPnemoniaEmphysema InfluenzaPulmonary TuberculosisLung cancer Sinusitis Pulmonary Fibrosis Otitis media Chapter 14 The Respiratory System p


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