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Presentation on theme: "FEDERAL GROUP."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ladder “Don’ts”

3 Ladder Enabling Objective
PORTABLE LADDER SAFETY IAW 29 CFR /.27 GOAL Provide adequate knowledge and training to minimize or eliminate ladder accidents. INTRODUCTION – Importance of Ladder Safety Any fall can be serious, and a fall from the height of even a low ladder can mean a painful and incapacitating injury. Regarding Incidence of Occupationally - Related Deaths: Excluding motor vehicle accidents, falls are the No. 1 cause of occupational related deaths. 18,757 injuries and 24 fatalities per year caused by falls from ladders. Falls account for more than 15% of all worker compensation cases. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that in one year, 65,000 individuals receive emergency room treatment because of ladder accidents. (CDC)

Ladders placed on unstable surfaces Workers reaching too far beyond the sides of the ladder. (Beyond center of body) Personnel standing too high on the ladder in order to maintain balance Defective or broken ladders (e.g., broken rails, rungs, missing hardware) Ladders were not secured or braced. (Particularly extrusion ladders) Personnel hand carrying loads while ascending or descending Selecting the wrong ladder for the job Improper positioning of the ladder Strong winds or rain 80% of ladder fall victims fell or slipped and nearly half of these fell at least 8’ 57% percent of fall victims were holding object (s) with one or both hands 66% of fall victims were not trained in how to inspect ladders 73% of fall victims not provided written instructions on safe use of ladders 30% of fall victims had wet, greasy or oily shoes

5 References OSHA 29 CFR 1910.25-.27 Portable Ladders
ANSI A14.1 Portable Ladders-Construction ANSI A14.2  Portable Wood Ladders ANSI A14.5  Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A14.4  Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders OSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration ANSI = American National Standards Institute

6 Work Practice Portable ladders can be made from metal (steel or aluminum), wood, fiberglass, or reinforced plastic Selection for the Job If a safer means of access (e.g., scaffolds, work platforms, or fixed ladders) is possible, portable ladders should not be used  The TASK determines the correct ladder required for the job (e.g., Indoor painting may require a conventional stepladder, while outdoor painting requires extension ladder. Heavier job may require an upgraded ladder, like platform ladder.) 

7 Approved Ladder An approved ladder usually consists of two side rails joined by regularly spaced crosspieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, allowing for up and down movement Ladders will be labeled with their duty rating

8 Approved Ladder Requirements: Uniform step spacing should be no more than 12 inches and parallel The minimum space between side rails should be no less than 11 ½ inches The minimum width of the side rails should be no less than 1 inch

9 Training Keep in mind that the length of a ladder is different from its usable length. Ladders must be long enough to insure user does not stand on the top two steps of a stepladder or the top four rungs of a straight ladder. The height these ladders can safely reach is reduced by the angle at which the ladder must be set up. When an extension ladder is used to access a roof, the ladder should extend at least 3 feet above the support point at the eave, gutter, or roof line. Short ladders should never be spliced together to form a longer ladder. Ladders should not be placed on unstable bases to gain additional height . Ladders are constructed to safely hold a specific amount of weight. Weight limits consist of users, their clothing, tools, and materials. Extra allowance should be made for stress exerted by worker.

10 Weight-Capacity Classifications
The weight-capacity classifications for ladders are: NOTE: LADDER'S DUTY RATING IS ON A LABEL AFFIXED TO THE LADDER Grade Duty Length Rating (lbs)(kg) Use Household III 3-6 Feet 200 (91) Commercial Medium Duty II 3-12 Feet 225 (102) Tradesman Industrial I 3-20 Feet 250 (114) Industrial Heavy Duty IA 300 (136) Heavy Industrial

11 Purchasing a Ladder Three types of materials most commonly used: Wood
+ non-conductor of electricity when dry + the best natural insulator against heat of all materials - ages very fast Fiberglass + non-conductor of electricity + dense material and is slower to conduct heat than metals + ages very slow - heavier than aluminum or wood models - tends to chip and crack under severe impact, or when dropped upon solid objects Aluminum + in general are tough + age very slow + will not chip or crack when subjected to severe impact - can conduct electricity - not a good insulator against heat

12 Purchasing a Ladder The stability of an individual stepladder can be checked by standing on the first step from the bottom and twisting the ladder. If it feels unsteady, choose another ladder. All metal ladders should have slip-resistant rubber or plastic feet. A double edge steel prong foot is supplied on all ground ladders to prevent slippage when the ladder is in use. It is recommended that a rubber safety shoe also be used if the ladder is to be positioned on a hard surface such as concrete. Metal stepladders should have slip-resistant steps. Some wooden stepladders also have this desirable feature.

13 Types of Ladders Stepladders
Erect a stepladder only on a flat level surface Before climbing a stepladder, make sure that its legs are fully extended and the spreader locked The locking device on some ladders may present a pinching hazard, so keep fingers clear when setting up the ladder

14 Types of Ladders Stepladders
Never use a step ladder as a straight ladder Stepladders do not exceed 20 feet

15 Types of Ladders Stepladders
Do not step on the bucket shelf or attempt to climb or stand on the rear section supports. They are not designed to support the weight of a person. Only a two way ladder is designed for two people.

16 Types of Ladders Extension Ladders
To raise a ladder, brace the lower end against a wall and then grasp the top rung with both hands Raise the top end and walk underneath the ladder, moving down the rungs until the ladder is vertical

17 Types of Ladders Extension Ladders
When using an extension ladder, raise it to the desired height, being sure the locks engage properly on both sides of the ladder. Extension ladders do not exceed 44 feet when extended. Extension ladders are not used fully extended. There is an overlap between sections, not less than 10% of the working length of the ladder.

18 Storage and Maintenance
Ladders should be stored in a sheltered area. Never leave a raised ladder unattended. (It could fall unexpectedly and injure someone.)

19 Storage and Maintenance
Straight and extension ladders should be stored horizontally on racks or hooks with support points at the top, middle, and bottom of the ladder to prevent sagging and warping Wooden ladders affected by exposure to heat, combined with dampness, need a dry, well-ventilated storage area A wooden ladder used outdoors should be shellacked, varnished or given two coats of linseed oil as a protective coating, unless it already has protective coatings Never paint a wooden ladder; the paint can hide defects

20 Storage and Maintenance
Never use a damaged ladder Have repair work done only by a competent repair shop If there is major damage, discard the ladder

21 Storage and Maintenance
Do not attempt to straighten a bent metal ladder Periodically tighten the reinforcing rods under the steps of a stepladder, the spreader hinges and other hardware Metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys shall be frequently lubricated

22 Precautions Avoid using a ladder if excessively tired, on medication, or have been temporarily impaired. Place ladder angle so base is at least 1 foot (0.305 meter) out for each 4 feet (1.2 meter) of ladder working length (support point to the base). Example: 12'=3', 20'=5'. Place top of ladder so both rails are fully supported. Allow extra room for ladder shifting. Place ladder on a substantial and level base, staking or securing lower end of the ladder, whenever possible. Top support point for portable ladders must be rigid and have adequate strength to support applied load. Place the ladder away from unlocked or unguarded doors that may open toward the ladder. Extend the ladder side rails at least 3 feet (0.91 meters) above the support point. Always raise extension ladders so upper section overlaps and rests on bottom section. Upper section must always overlap on climbing side of the extension ladder. Ensure at least a 3 foot (0.91 meters) overlap for extension ladders of 36 feet (11 meters) or more. Do not place a metal-reinforced ladder where it may come in contact with electric wiring. Never use ladders in a horizontal position. Take care when ladders are used on oily, metal, concrete, or slippery surfaces. Extend ladder only while standing on the ground at ladder base. Do not place ladders on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height. Do not use ladders to gain access to a roof unless top of the ladder extends at least 3 feet (0.91 meters) above support point (at roof line).

23 Precautions II Face the ladder and use both hands to grip side rails while ascending or descending. Only one person at a time should stand on portable ladders. Carry tools on a tool belt. Haul materials up on a line, rather than carrying them. Do not exceed maximum safe height limit (fourth rung from the top on extension ladders; second step from the top on stepladders). Wipe off greasy or muddy shoes, as much as possible, before using ladder. Do not overload a ladder. Ensure stepladder is fully open and locked before using it. Do not leave placed ladders unattended, they may be a hazard for others. Keep ladders clean and free of grease. Use extra caution while climbing during windy weather conditions. Never use a defective ladder. Do not drop or throw ladders. Do not use make-shift ladders. Do not splice short ladders together to make long ladders. Use portable ladders with reinforced rails (only with metal reinforcements on underside). Ensure portable ladders have nonslip feet. Handle ladders with care. Do not drop or misuse them.

24 Recommended Actions Those responsible for using and maintaining portable ladders should ensure: Ladders are maintained in proper condition. Any ladder used, where there is a slipping hazard, is supplied with nonslip devices. Nonslip devices, if used, should be securely attached. Ladders are safely placed and secured at all times; never rely on nonslip devices as a substitute for care in safely placing and securing ladders. Ensure ladder being used has the proper duty rating to carry the combined weight of the user and the material being installed. A ladder's duty rating tells you its maximum weight capacity. ANSI requires that a duty rating sticker be placed on the side of every ladder so users can determine if they have the correct type ladder for each task/job. Type IA and Type I ladders are the only acceptable ladders on a construction jobsite.

25 Repairs Field or makeshift repairs on existing ladders or the fabrication of ladders is discouraged Do not attempt to straighten or use a bent ladder made of metal or reinforced plastic Ladder repairs must be made only by qualified personnel and must be reviewed by supervisory personnel after repairs are made

26 Coating When necessary, coat metal, wood, and plastic ladders with a suitable protective material Do not paint wood ladders with opaque coating (e.g., paint) because possible defects may be covered up Use only transparent coatings or wood preservatives Metal ladders may need extra protection in cases of excess moisture, salt spray, acidic, or alkaline conditions

27 Transportation Assistance may be needed in transporting heavy or long ladders When transported on vehicles, ladders should be adequately supported (preferably on hardwood or rubber-covered pipe) to avoid sagging and should be fastened securely

28 Storage Store ladders to provide easy access for inspection and permits safe withdrawal for use Do not store ladders where they present a tripping hazard, nor where they can fall on personnel When stored horizontally, ladders should be supported at several points to avoid sagging Keep ladders away from sources of heat and moisture and in a well-ventilated area Aluminum ladders should not be stored in certain atmospheres (e.g., acidic) due to severe corrosion problems The sun’s rays can cause deterioration in fiber-glass ladders Wax fiber-glass ladders with paste wax for extended storage and increased life span of use

29 NonSlip Ladders should have non-skid safety feet and be in satisfactory condition. To ensure ladders are used properly, OSHA places primary responsibility on the user to ". . . equip all portable rung ladders (e.g., single vertical ladders, section ladders, trestle ladders) with nonslip bases when there is a hazard of slipping." ANSI A , Section 8.3.4, reads in part, "Where ladders with no safety shoes, spurs, spikes, or similar devices are used, a foot ladder board or similar device may be employed. Ladders shall not be used on ice, snow, or slippery surfaces unless suitable means to prevent slipping are employed." Wood ladders are not required by code or standard to have nonslip devices or shoes installed by the manufacturer (ANSI A , Section ). If nonslip devices or shoes are provided, they must be securely attached to the bottoms of the ladder side rails (ANSI A , Section ). The ladder user is responsible for ensuring any wood ladder used, where there is a hazard of slipping, is equipped with nonslip devices or shoes ( ). Nonslip devices are not intended as a substitute for care in safely placing and securing any ladder ( ).

30 Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder
All Ladders, including job made ladders, will be capable of supporting at least 4 times the maximum intended load Ladders shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a monthly basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe use All ladders will be inspected prior to use and be maintained in good working condition Ladders found to have defects, will immediately be marked "Do Not Use,” taken out of service and replaced

31 Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder
You should inspect the following: Ladders have no nails, screws, or splinters sticking out Side rails for dents or bends Rivets for shear Hardware connections Excessively dented rungs Rungs are firmly attached to side rails Rungs have no oil or grease on them Non-slip safety feet or bases on ladders are in good condition Non-slip safety material on ladder rungs is in good condition Ladder is not wobbly and steps are not worn or broken Documentation of inspection maintained for three (3) years

32 Controlling Hazards Setup
Do not place it on a table or any similar platform for added height Ladders should be placed on dry firm ground Ladders should not be placed in front of doors opening towards the ladders unless the door is locked or guarded

33 Controlling Hazards Setup
Ladders shall be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental displacement Ladders shall not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent accidental displacement

34 Controlling Hazards Setup
Ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such use A metal spreader or locking device shall be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used

35 Controlling Hazards Setup
Ladder components shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing Wood ladders shall not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or warning labels, which may be placed on one face only of a side rail Ladders shall be maintained free of oil, grease and other slipping hazards Ladders shall be used only for the purpose for which they were designed

36 Controlling Hazards Setup
Portable extension ladders shall be used at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-fourth of the working length of the ladder (Example: If the ladder is 20 feet long, the base of the ladder should be 5 feet from the structure.) 20 ft long ladder 5 ft

37 Controlling Hazards Setup
Never use a ladder in a strong wind. The point where the ladder rests against the wall should be flat and firm. A ladder should not be placed in front of a door that is not locked, blocked or guarded. Before positioning the ladder, check for insect or bird nests under leaves. The top of a ladder is no place to discover a wasp nest.

38 Controlling Hazards Setup
The area around the top and bottom of ladders shall be kept clear The top of a portable extension ladder shall be placed with the two rails supported equally Ladders shall not be moved, shifted or extended while occupied

39 Controlling Hazards Setup
When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the ladder side rails shall extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface When such an extension is not possible, because of the ladder's length, the ladder shall be secured at its top

40 Controlling Hazards Setup
Keep metal ladders away from electrical wires Ladders should have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment When using a ladder near power lines, use a wooden or fiberglass ladder since metal ladders conduct electricity

41 Controlling Hazards Use
Face the ladder when climbing or descending and use both hands Mount the ladder from the center, not from the side Tools should be carried in the pockets, in a bag attached to a belt, or raised and lowered by rope Be sure that the soles of your shoes are clean and dry Work facing the ladder, holding on with one hand If it is ever necessary to work with both hands, hook one leg over the rung

42 Controlling Hazards Use
Single-rail ladders shall not be used Short ladders should not be spliced together to provide long sections

43 Controlling Hazards Use
A good general guide is to keep your body centered between the rails of the ladder Instead of leaning to the side, get down and move the ladder Ladders should not be used by more than one person at a time unless the ladder was designed for multiple people

44 Controlling Hazards Use
In case of sudden dizziness or a panicky feeling, bow your head, drape both arms over the rung in front of you, close your eyes, and wait until the feeling passes. If possible, secure the ladder. One way to do this is to have someone hold the bottom of the ladder.

45 Controlling Hazards Use
Do not drape cords, store things or hang objects on ladder This is a potential trip hazard and a possible electrical hazard

46 Controlling Hazards Use
Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways or scaffolds

47 Controlling Hazards Use
The top or top step shall not be used as a step Never overextend the body Always maintain at least three points of contact with the ladder (2 feet and 1 hand, or 2 hands and 1 foot) should be in contact with the ladder at all times The user shall use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up or down the ladder, and shall not carry any object or load that could cause the user to lose balance and fall

48 Controlling Hazards Use
The top or top step shall not be used as a step Never overextend the body Remember, right tool for the right job

49 What is wrong with this picture?

50 What is wrong with these pictures?

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53 Ladder Safety Checklist-I
This safety checklist has been designed to help VSE employees and supervisors follow the minimal ladder safety practices. Ladders should meet the standard requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 and 1926 or ANSI A14.5. Workers who think of a ladder as a tool will be more aware of ladder safety and less likely to take chances when using a ladder. Use the following checklist as a guide, first for inspecting a ladder and second for ensuring that safety precautions are taken when using the ladder. Ladder Inspection Do all ladders meet the requirements of 29 CFR /26 and/or ANSI A (Compliance with cited standards verified by checking tags or stamps on each ladder) Are the rungs, cleats, or steps in good condition? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i) Are the side rails intact without any cracks, bends, or breaks? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i) Do the rungs, cleats, or steps fit snuggly into the side rails? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i) Is the ladder free of corrosion? Are the side rails and steps free of oil or grease? Have ladders been checked for loose nails, screws, bolts, or other projecting metal parts? 29 CFR (d)(1)(i) Is regular lubrication of metal bearings, locks, or pulleys on ladders performed? 29 CFR (b)(1)(ii) Do moveable parts operate freely without binding or excessive play? Are the ropes on extension ladders intact without fraying or excessive wear? 29 CFR (d)(1)(iii) Are safety feet and other auxiliary equipment on portable ladders in good condition? 29 CFR (b)(1)(iv) Have non-skid coatings been applied to metal ladder rungs or steps that are not corrugated, knurled, or dimpled in design? 29 CFR (b)(1)(v)

54 Ladder Safety Checklist-II
Safe Ladder Procedures Are procedures established to ensure that ladders are not placed in front of doors that open toward the ladders unless the doors are locked, blocked, or otherwise guarded? 29 CFR (d)(2)(iv) Is only one person allowed on a ladder at a time? (Exception: More than one person is allowed on a ladder when jacks with scaffold planking are used in conjunction with ladders capable of supporting 225 pounds (102 kilograms) or more.) 29 CFR ©(3)(ii) Are employees instructed on the proper way to ascend/descend ladders? 29 CFR (c)(3)(v) Is it prohibited to place ladders on boxes, barrels, or surfaces with unstable bases? 29 CFR (d)(2)(v) Did you select a ladder with adequate length and load limits? Don't use metal ladders near electrical lines. Are you using the ladder for its intended purpose? - Don't use a ladder as a brace, skid, lever, gangway, platform, scaffold, plank, or material hoist. - Don't tie ladders together to make them longer. - Don't use a stepladder as a straight ladder. Did you set up the ladder on a firm, solid surface? - Don't place a ladder on boxes or blocks to make it taller. - Don't set up a ladder on a scaffold to gain extra height. - Don't set up a ladder on a slippery or icy surface. Are you securing or barricading the ladder to protect it from being bumped when you have to work in doorways, passageways, or driveways?

55 Ladder Safety Checklist-III
Safe Ladder Procedures (cont’d) Is the area around the top and bottom of the ladder clear? Is your stepladder fully opened with the spreaders locked to keep the ladder stable? Have you set up your straight ladder using the 4 to 1 rule? (1 foot from the wall for each 4 feet of ladder length.) Have you set up your straight ladder so the rails are supported equally at the top? Is the straight ladder set up so the top extends at least 3 feet above the support point? Are you using your extension ladder so the upper section overlaps the lower section, and the overlap is on the climbing side with the rungs locked in place? Do you face the ladder when ascending or descending? Do you use both hands to grip the side rails whenever possible? Always use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing, and don't carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance. Do you use a ladder safety device when needed on fixed ladders? Do you stay off of the top 2 steps of a stepladder? Do you stay off the back section of a stepladder? Do you stay off the top 4 rungs of a straight ladder? Is only one person allowed on the ladder at a time? Do you hoist tools or other materials up to you after you've reached the top of the ladder? Wear a toolbelt to help you manage tools while you're working on a ladder. Do you work within the side rails? If your belt buckle goes past the side rail, you are leaning too far. Descend and move the ladder as needed to stay close to your work. Do you store the ladder in a secure designated area after use?

56 Ladder “Don’ts”


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