3Ladder Enabling Objective PORTABLE LADDER SAFETYIAW 29 CFR /.27GOALProvide adequate knowledge and training to minimize or eliminate ladder accidents.INTRODUCTION – Importance of Ladder SafetyAny fall can be serious, and a fall from the height of even a low ladder can mean a painful and incapacitating injury.Regarding Incidence of Occupationally - Related Deaths: Excluding motor vehicle accidents, falls are the No. 1 cause of occupational related deaths.18,757 injuries and 24 fatalities per year caused by falls from ladders.Falls account for more than 15% of all worker compensation cases.The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that in one year, 65,000 individuals receive emergency room treatment because of ladder accidents. (CDC)
4Ladders CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONALLY RELATED DEATHS Ladders placed on unstable surfacesWorkers reaching too far beyond the sides of the ladder. (Beyond center of body)Personnel standing too high on the ladder in order to maintain balanceDefective or broken ladders (e.g., broken rails, rungs, missing hardware)Ladders were not secured or braced. (Particularly extrusion ladders)Personnel hand carrying loads while ascending or descendingSelecting the wrong ladder for the jobImproper positioning of the ladderStrong winds or rain80% of ladder fall victims fell or slipped and nearly half of these fell at least 8’57% percent of fall victims were holding object (s) with one or both hands66% of fall victims were not trained in how to inspect ladders73% of fall victims not provided written instructions on safe use of ladders30% of fall victims had wet, greasy or oily shoes
5References OSHA 29 CFR 1910.25-.27 Portable Ladders ANSI A14.1 Portable Ladders-ConstructionANSI A14.2 Portable Wood LaddersANSI A14.5 Portable Metal LaddersANSI A14.4 Portable Reinforced Plastic LaddersOSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration ANSI = American National Standards Institute
6Work PracticePortable ladders can be made from metal (steel or aluminum), wood, fiberglass, or reinforced plasticSelection for the JobIf a safer means of access (e.g., scaffolds, work platforms, or fixed ladders) is possible, portable ladders should not be used The TASK determines the correct ladder required for the job(e.g., Indoor painting may require a conventional stepladder, while outdoor painting requires extension ladder. Heavier job may require an upgraded ladder, like platform ladder.)
7Approved LadderAn approved ladder usually consists of two side rails joined by regularly spaced crosspieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, allowing for up and down movementLadders will be labeled with their duty rating
8Approved LadderRequirements:Uniform step spacing should be no more than 12 inches and parallelThe minimum space between side rails should be no less than 11 ½ inchesThe minimum width of the side rails should be no less than 1 inch
9TrainingKeep in mind that the length of a ladder is different from its usable length.Ladders must be long enough to insure user does not stand on the top two steps of a stepladder or the top four rungs of a straight ladder.The height these ladders can safely reach is reduced by the angle at which the ladder must be set up.When an extension ladder is used to access a roof, the ladder should extend at least 3 feet above the support point at the eave, gutter, or roof line. Short ladders should never be spliced together to form a longer ladder. Ladders should not be placed on unstable bases to gain additional height .Ladders are constructed to safely hold a specific amount of weight. Weight limits consist of users, their clothing, tools, and materials. Extra allowance should be made for stress exerted by worker.
10Weight-Capacity Classifications The weight-capacity classifications for ladders are:NOTE: LADDER'S DUTY RATING IS ON A LABEL AFFIXED TO THE LADDERGradeDutyLengthRating(lbs)(kg)UseHouseholdIII3-6 Feet200 (91)CommercialMedium DutyII3-12 Feet225 (102)TradesmanIndustrialI3-20 Feet250 (114)Industrial Heavy DutyIA300 (136)Heavy Industrial
11Purchasing a Ladder Three types of materials most commonly used: Wood + non-conductor of electricity when dry+ the best natural insulator against heat of all materials- ages very fastFiberglass+ non-conductor of electricity+ dense material and is slower to conduct heat than metals+ ages very slow- heavier than aluminum or wood models- tends to chip and crack under severe impact, or when dropped upon solid objectsAluminum+ in general are tough+ age very slow+ will not chip or crack when subjected to severe impact- can conduct electricity- not a good insulator against heat
12Purchasing a LadderThe stability of an individual stepladder can be checked by standing on the first step from the bottom and twisting the ladder. If it feels unsteady, choose another ladder.All metal ladders should have slip-resistant rubber or plastic feet. A double edge steel prong foot is supplied on all ground ladders to prevent slippage when the ladder is in use. It is recommended that a rubber safety shoe also be used if the ladder is to be positioned on a hard surface such as concrete.Metal stepladders should have slip-resistant steps. Some wooden stepladders also have this desirable feature.
13Types of Ladders Stepladders Erect a stepladder only on a flat level surfaceBefore climbing a stepladder, make sure that its legs are fully extended and the spreader lockedThe locking device on some ladders may present a pinching hazard, so keep fingers clear when setting up the ladder
14Types of Ladders Stepladders Never use a step ladder as a straight ladderStepladders do not exceed 20 feet
15Types of Ladders Stepladders Do not step on the bucket shelf or attempt to climb or stand on the rear section supports. They are not designed to support the weight of a person.Only a two way ladder is designed for two people.
16Types of Ladders Extension Ladders To raise a ladder, brace the lower end against a wall and then grasp the top rung with both handsRaise the top end and walk underneath the ladder, moving down the rungs until the ladder is vertical
17Types of Ladders Extension Ladders When using an extension ladder, raise it to the desired height, being sure the locks engage properly on both sides of the ladder.Extension ladders do not exceed 44 feet when extended.Extension ladders are not used fully extended. There is an overlap between sections, not less than 10% of the working length of the ladder.
18Storage and Maintenance Ladders should be stored in a sheltered area.Never leave a raised ladder unattended.(It could fall unexpectedly and injure someone.)
19Storage and Maintenance Straight and extension ladders should be stored horizontally on racks or hooks with support points at the top, middle, and bottom of the ladder to prevent sagging and warpingWooden ladders affected by exposure to heat, combined with dampness, need a dry, well-ventilated storage areaA wooden ladder used outdoors should be shellacked, varnished or given two coats of linseed oil as a protective coating, unless it already has protective coatingsNever paint a wooden ladder; the paint can hide defects
20Storage and Maintenance Never use a damaged ladderHave repair work done only by a competent repair shopIf there is major damage, discard the ladder
21Storage and Maintenance Do not attempt to straightena bent metal ladderPeriodically tighten the reinforcing rods under the steps of a stepladder, the spreader hinges and other hardwareMetal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys shall be frequently lubricated
22PrecautionsAvoid using a ladder if excessively tired, on medication, or have been temporarily impaired.Place ladder angle so base is at least 1 foot (0.305 meter) out for each 4 feet (1.2 meter) of ladder working length (support point to the base). Example: 12'=3', 20'=5'.Place top of ladder so both rails are fully supported. Allow extra room for ladder shifting.Place ladder on a substantial and level base, staking or securing lower end of the ladder, whenever possible.Top support point for portable ladders must be rigid and have adequate strength to support applied load.Place the ladder away from unlocked or unguarded doors that may open toward the ladder.Extend the ladder side rails at least 3 feet (0.91 meters) above the support point.Always raise extension ladders so upper section overlaps and rests on bottom section. Upper section must always overlap on climbing side of the extension ladder. Ensure at least a 3 foot (0.91 meters) overlap for extension ladders of 36 feet (11 meters) or more.Do not place a metal-reinforced ladder where it may come in contact with electric wiring.Never use ladders in a horizontal position.Take care when ladders are used on oily, metal, concrete, or slippery surfaces.Extend ladder only while standing on the ground at ladder base.Do not place ladders on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.Do not use ladders to gain access to a roof unless top of the ladder extends at least 3 feet (0.91 meters) above support point (at roof line).
23Precautions IIFace the ladder and use both hands to grip side rails while ascending or descending.Only one person at a time should stand on portable ladders.Carry tools on a tool belt. Haul materials up on a line, rather than carrying them.Do not exceed maximum safe height limit (fourth rung from the top on extension ladders; second step from the top on stepladders).Wipe off greasy or muddy shoes, as much as possible, before using ladder.Do not overload a ladder.Ensure stepladder is fully open and locked before using it.Do not leave placed ladders unattended, they may be a hazard for others.Keep ladders clean and free of grease.Use extra caution while climbing during windy weather conditions.Never use a defective ladder.Do not drop or throw ladders.Do not use make-shift ladders.Do not splice short ladders together to make long ladders.Use portable ladders with reinforced rails (only with metal reinforcements on underside).Ensure portable ladders have nonslip feet.Handle ladders with care. Do not drop or misuse them.
24Recommended ActionsThose responsible for using and maintaining portable ladders should ensure:Ladders are maintained in proper condition.Any ladder used, where there is a slipping hazard, is supplied with nonslip devices. Nonslip devices, if used, should be securely attached.Ladders are safely placed and secured at all times; never rely on nonslip devices as a substitute for care in safely placing and securing ladders.Ensure ladder being used has the proper duty rating to carry the combined weight of the user and the material being installed. A ladder's duty rating tells you its maximum weight capacity.ANSI requires that a duty rating sticker be placed on the side of every ladder so users can determine if they have the correct type ladder for each task/job.Type IA and Type I ladders are the only acceptable ladders on a construction jobsite.
25RepairsField or makeshift repairs on existing ladders or the fabrication of ladders is discouragedDo not attempt to straighten or use a bent ladder made of metal or reinforced plasticLadder repairs must be made only by qualified personnel and must be reviewed by supervisory personnel after repairs are made
26CoatingWhen necessary, coat metal, wood, and plastic ladders with a suitable protective materialDo not paint wood ladders with opaque coating (e.g., paint) because possible defects may be covered upUse only transparent coatings or wood preservativesMetal ladders may need extra protection in cases of excess moisture, salt spray, acidic, or alkaline conditions
27TransportationAssistance may be needed in transporting heavy or long laddersWhen transported on vehicles, ladders should be adequately supported (preferably on hardwood or rubber-covered pipe) to avoid sagging and should be fastened securely
28StorageStore ladders to provide easy access for inspection and permits safe withdrawal for useDo not store ladders where they present a tripping hazard, nor where they can fall on personnelWhen stored horizontally, ladders should be supported at several points to avoid saggingKeep ladders away from sources of heat and moisture and in a well-ventilated areaAluminum ladders should not be stored in certain atmospheres (e.g., acidic) due to severe corrosion problemsThe sun’s rays can cause deterioration in fiber-glass laddersWax fiber-glass ladders with paste wax for extended storage and increased life span of use
29NonSlipLadders should have non-skid safety feet and be in satisfactory condition.To ensure ladders are used properly, OSHA places primary responsibility on the user to ". . . equip all portable rung ladders (e.g., single vertical ladders, section ladders, trestle ladders) with nonslip bases when there is a hazard of slipping."ANSI A , Section 8.3.4, reads in part, "Where ladders with no safety shoes, spurs, spikes, or similar devices are used, a foot ladder board or similar device may be employed. Ladders shall not be used on ice, snow, or slippery surfaces unless suitable means to prevent slipping are employed."Wood ladders are not required by code or standard to have nonslip devices or shoes installed by the manufacturer (ANSI A , Section ).If nonslip devices or shoes are provided, they must be securely attached to the bottoms of the ladder side rails (ANSI A , Section ).The ladder user is responsible for ensuring any wood ladder used, where there is a hazard of slipping, is equipped with nonslip devices or shoes ( ).Nonslip devices are not intended as a substitute for care in safely placing and securing any ladder ( ).
30Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder All Ladders, including job made ladders, will be capable of supporting at least 4 times the maximum intended loadLadders shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a monthly basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe useAll ladders will be inspected prior to use and be maintained in good working conditionLadders found to have defects, will immediately be marked "Do Not Use,” taken out of service and replaced
31Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder You should inspect the following:Ladders have no nails, screws, or splinters sticking outSide rails for dents or bendsRivets for shearHardware connectionsExcessively dented rungsRungs are firmly attached to side railsRungs have no oil or grease on themNon-slip safety feet or bases on ladders are in good conditionNon-slip safety material on ladder rungs is in good conditionLadder is not wobbly and steps are not worn or brokenDocumentation of inspection maintained for three (3) years
32Controlling Hazards Setup Do not place it on a table or any similar platform for added heightLadders should be placed on dry firm groundLadders should not be placed in front of doors opening towards the ladders unless the door is locked or guarded
33Controlling Hazards Setup Ladders shall be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental displacementLadders shall not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent accidental displacement
34Controlling Hazards Setup Ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such useA metal spreader or locking device shall be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used
35Controlling Hazards Setup Ladder components shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothingWood ladders shall not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or warning labels, which may be placed on one face only of a side railLadders shall be maintained free of oil, grease and other slipping hazardsLadders shall be used only for the purpose for which they were designed
36Controlling Hazards Setup Portable extension ladders shall be used at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-fourth of the working length of the ladder(Example: If the ladder is 20 feet long, the base of the ladder should be 5 feet from the structure.)20 ft long ladder5 ft
37Controlling Hazards Setup Never use a ladder in a strong wind.The point where the ladder rests against the wall should be flat and firm.A ladder should not be placed in front of a door that is not locked, blocked or guarded.Before positioning the ladder, check for insect or bird nests under leaves. The top of a ladder is no place to discover a wasp nest.
38Controlling Hazards Setup The area around the top and bottom of ladders shall be kept clearThe top of a portable extension ladder shall be placed with the two rails supported equallyLadders shall not be moved, shifted or extended while occupied
39Controlling Hazards Setup When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the ladder side rails shall extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surfaceWhen such an extension is not possible, because of the ladder's length, the ladder shall be secured at its top
40Controlling Hazards Setup Keep metal ladders away from electrical wiresLadders should have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipmentWhen using a ladder near power lines, use a wooden or fiberglass ladder since metal ladders conduct electricity
41Controlling Hazards Use Face the ladder when climbing or descending and use both handsMount the ladder from the center, not from the sideTools should be carried in the pockets, in a bag attached to a belt, or raised and lowered by ropeBe sure that the soles of your shoes are clean and dryWork facing the ladder, holding on with one handIf it is ever necessary to work with both hands, hook one leg over the rung
42Controlling Hazards Use Single-rail ladders shall not be usedShort ladders should not be spliced together to provide long sections
43Controlling Hazards Use A good general guide is to keep your body centered between the rails of the ladderInstead of leaning to the side, get down and move the ladderLadders should not be used by more than one person at a time unless the ladder was designed for multiple people
44Controlling Hazards Use In case of sudden dizziness or a panicky feeling, bow your head, drape both arms over the rung in front of you, close your eyes, and wait until the feeling passes.If possible, secure the ladder. One way to do this is to have someone hold the bottom of the ladder.
45Controlling Hazards Use Do not drape cords, store things or hang objects on ladderThis is a potential trip hazard and a possible electrical hazard
46Controlling Hazards Use Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways or scaffolds
47Controlling Hazards Use The top or top step shall not be used as a stepNever overextend the bodyAlways maintain at least three points of contact with the ladder (2 feet and 1 hand, or 2 hands and 1 foot) should be in contact with the ladder at all timesThe user shall use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up or down the ladder, and shall not carry any object or load that could cause the user to lose balance and fall
48Controlling Hazards Use The top or top step shall not be used as a stepNever overextend the bodyRemember, right tool for the right job
53Ladder Safety Checklist-I This safety checklist has been designed to help VSE employees and supervisors follow the minimal ladder safety practices. Ladders should meet the standard requirements of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 and 1926 or ANSI A14.5. Workers who think of a ladder as a tool will be more aware of ladder safety and less likely to take chances when using a ladder. Use the following checklist as a guide, first for inspecting a ladder and second for ensuring that safety precautions are taken when using the ladder.Ladder InspectionDo all ladders meet the requirements of 29 CFR /26 and/or ANSI A (Compliance with cited standards verified by checking tags or stamps on each ladder)Are the rungs, cleats, or steps in good condition? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i)Are the side rails intact without any cracks, bends, or breaks? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i)Do the rungs, cleats, or steps fit snuggly into the side rails? 29 CFR (b)(1)(i)Is the ladder free of corrosion?Are the side rails and steps free of oil or grease?Have ladders been checked for loose nails, screws, bolts, or other projecting metal parts? 29 CFR (d)(1)(i)Is regular lubrication of metal bearings, locks, or pulleys on ladders performed? 29 CFR (b)(1)(ii)Do moveable parts operate freely without binding or excessive play?Are the ropes on extension ladders intact without fraying or excessive wear? 29 CFR (d)(1)(iii)Are safety feet and other auxiliary equipment on portable ladders in good condition? 29 CFR (b)(1)(iv)Have non-skid coatings been applied to metal ladder rungs or steps that are not corrugated, knurled, or dimpled in design? 29 CFR (b)(1)(v)
55Ladder Safety Checklist-III Safe Ladder Procedures (cont’d)Is the area around the top and bottom of the ladder clear?Is your stepladder fully opened with the spreaders locked to keep the ladder stable?Have you set up your straight ladder using the 4 to 1 rule? (1 foot from the wall for each 4 feet of ladder length.)Have you set up your straight ladder so the rails are supported equally at the top?Is the straight ladder set up so the top extends at least 3 feet above the support point?Are you using your extension ladder so the upper section overlaps the lower section, and the overlap is on the climbing side with the rungs locked in place? Do you face the ladder when ascending or descending?Do you use both hands to grip the side rails whenever possible? Always use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing, and don't carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance.Do you use a ladder safety device when needed on fixed ladders?Do you stay off of the top 2 steps of a stepladder?Do you stay off the back section of a stepladder?Do you stay off the top 4 rungs of a straight ladder?Is only one person allowed on the ladder at a time?Do you hoist tools or other materials up to you after you've reached the top of the ladder?Wear a toolbelt to help you manage tools while you're working on a ladder.Do you work within the side rails? If your belt buckle goes past the side rail, you are leaning too far. Descend and move the ladder as needed to stay close to your work.Do you store the ladder in a secure designated area after use?