3 General Ladder Requirements Ladders must be kept in a safe condition-- DO –Keep the area around the top and bottom of a ladder clearEnsure rungs, cleats, and steps are level and uniformly spacedEnsure rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches apartKeep ladders free from slipping hazardsReference (a) and (b)
4 General Ladder Requirements Use ladders only for their designed purpose-- DON’T –Tie ladders together to make longer sections, unless designed for such useUse single rail laddersLoad ladders beyond the maximum load for which they were built, nor beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacityReference (a) and (b)
5 Securing Ladders This ladder is not on a stable surface Secure ladders to prevent accidental movement due to workplace activityOnly use ladders on stable and level surfaces, unless securedDo not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feetReference (b)(8), (b)(6), (b)(7), and (b)(1)Ladders placed in areas such as passage-ways, doorways, or driveways, or where they can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic must be secured to prevent accidental movement, or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away from the ladder.
6 Portable LaddersInspect before use for cracks, dents, and missing rungsDesign or treat rungs to minimize slippingSide rails -- at least 11 1/2 inches apartMust support 4 times the maximum loadReference (b)(15), (b)(6)(ii) and (a)(4)(ii)See the OSHA web site at:Portable Ladder: a ladder that can be readily moved or carried.Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level and uniformly spaced.The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material or treated to minimize slipping.
7 Painting Wood Ladders Don’t paint ladders Don’t use an opaque covering (like varnish) on a wood ladderReference (a)(12)Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except identification or warning labels on one face only of a side rail.
8 Ladder Angle Non-self-supporting ladders: (which lean against a wall or other support)Position at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is 1/4 the working length of the ladderReference (b)(5)Working length of ladder– Distance along the ladder between the foot and top support
9 Ladder Rail ExtensionWhen using a portable ladder for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surfaceReference (b)(1)When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface. When such an extension is not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a grab rail must be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder. A ladder extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip off its support.
10 Tall Fixed Ladder Requirements Equip a fixed ladder 24 feet or longer with either a:Ladder safety deviceSelf-retracting lifelines with rest platforms every 150 feet or lessCage or well, and multiple ladder sections, each section not exceeding 50 feetReference (a)(18) and (a)(19)Fixed Ladder: a ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure.In using a cage or well, ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections, and landing platforms must be provided at maximum intervals of 50 feetUse a fixed ladder at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees horizontal measurement from the back of the ladder.A fixed ladder must be able to support at least 2 loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. It must also support added anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging and impact loads resulting from using ladder safety devices.
11 Top Step Do not use the top or top step of a stepladder as a step Reference (b)(13)
12 Damaged or Defective Ladders A competent person must inspect ladders for visible defects, like broken or missing rungsIf a defective ladder is found, immediately mark it defective or tag it "Do Not Use”Withdraw defective ladders from service until repairedMissing rungReference (b)(16)Ladders must be inspected on a periodic basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use.Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent injury from punctures or lacerations and prevent snagging of clothing.
13 Climbing the Ladder Face the ladder when going up or down Use at least one hand to grab the ladder when going up or downDo not carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balanceReference (b)(20),(21),(22)
14 Near Energized Electrical Equipment If using ladders where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment, they must have nonconductive siderails such as wood or fiberglass.Reference (b)(12)This is an unsafe condition
15 Overhead Power LinesMost overhead power line electrocutions are a result from a failure to maintain proper safe distance.OSHA mandates that all activities, equipment and workers maintain at least a 10 feet distance from a power line
16 Water and ElectricityIn Green industries, water usage is common on a work site.Water decreases resistance to electricityWet hand decreases the body’s resistance to shockKeep electrical equipment and cords away from waterNever operate electrical equipment when standing in water
17 Contact With Power Lines Indirect contact occurs when the machine, tool, or object someone is holding contacts a line and transfers the energy to the person.
18 What could have been done differently? Fatal FactAn employee was trimming a tree that was near an overhead power line. The employee misjudged the distance, cut the branch, and it fell on the line. The employee, who was still holding onto the branch, was electrocuted.What could have been done differently?
19 Activities Around Power Lines Power line contact can result from:Working in treesPruning trees from the groundUsing long pruning tools made of metal is dangerousRaising or moving laddersRaising or lowering machinesMoving irrigation pipesPulling or installing pumpcasing and pipe
20 Staying Safe Around Power Lines Always look up for overhead power linesAlways assume a power line is energizedNon-metallics like lumber, branches, and rope can conduct electricityUse a ground worker to observe clearanceStay at least 10 feet awayDon’t use ladders near overhead power linesPlan travel routes for equipment
21 Contact With a Power Line If a co-worker contacts a power line:Do not go near them if they are still in contactCall the power company to de-energize the lineCall emergency services immediately
22 Personal Protective Equipment Proper foot protection (not tennis shoes)Rubber insulating gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting, and blanketsHard hat (insulated - nonconductive)
23 FallsWorkers in elevated locations who experience electric shock may fall as a result of the shock.TreesLaddersAerial lifts
25 Aerial Lifts Preoperational inspection Look for broken, missing, damaged or loose partsCheck pivot pins/retaining devisesPerform maintenance procedures required by manufacturerLook for structural damage, cracked weldsInspect hydraulic system
26 Aerial Lifts Never exceed basket weight limits Lift controls tested dailyOnly authorized persons to operateNever tie off to object outside the basketHarness and lanyard requiredFeet kept firmly on the floor of the basketNo planks or ladders used for work positionNever exceed basket weight limitsLift trucks not to be moved w/ basket elevatedUpper and Lower controlsLower controls for emergency
28 Contact With a Power Line If you are in a vehicle in contact with a line:Stay in the vehicleMake sure no one comes near the vehicleCall for help and contact the power company
29 Contact With a Power Line If you must exit the vehicle because of fire:Jump to the ground and keep your balanceDo not touch anything with your handsHop away from vehicle with both feet togetherIf you can’t hop, shuffle your feet keeping both on the groundCurrent can flow outward through the ground in a ripple effect from the equipment in contact with the power line.
30 Summary Inspect Ladders before use Use ladders as manufacturers intendedAvoid contact with overhead wires if you are working with long objectsLadders, pruning shears, pruning saws, aerial liftsMaintain aerial lift per operators manualOperate aerial lift as manufacturer intendedKeep electrical equipment away from water
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